# Weights

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Related to Weights: Weights and measures

## Weights

measures used in weighing, for graduating and checking scales, and sometimes also as measures of the force of gravity (for checking dynamometers and creating loads in mechanical tests).

Scales and weights appeared several thousand years ago, with the development of trade in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt. Ancient Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, and Roman weights of various shapes (particularly those of sacred animals or their heads) are known. In ancient Russia, as in a number of other countries, the monetary units (coins) functioned simultaneously as measures of weight. In Russia at the end of the 18th century, spherical cast-iron weights were established in sizes of 2 and 1 pood (1 pood = 16.38 kg), 27, 9, 3, and 1 funt (1 funt ≈ 0.41 kg), and 81, 27, 9, 3, and 1 zolotnik (1 zolotnik = 4.266 g). The use of weights with these names (but in slightly different sets) continued in Russia until the introduction of the metric system.

In the USSR and other countries using the metric system, the masses of weights are expressed in kilograms, grams, and milligrams. Weights whose masses are expressed in carats (1 metric carat = 200 mg) are often used for weighing precious stones. In the USA, Britain, Canada, and a number of other countries, both metric weights and weights whose mass is expressed in pounds, as well as fractions and multiples of the pound, are used.

A distinction is made among working weights (used for weighing; there are five classes of them), standard weights, and model weights (used for checking; there are four classes). Working weights may be either separate weights or sets of weights of various masses, or built into the scales. Built-in weights are an integral part of scales; therefore, they are used and checked only in the scales in which they are installed.

Weights are characterized by a nominal mass value, a maximum deviation from the nominal value (fit accuracy), and the limit of permissible error in the determination of mass in testing. The maximum permissible deviations (Δ) for Class 2 weights are given in Table 1 as an example.

Table 1. Nominal mass and deviations of Class 2 weights
Nominal massΔ(mg)
5 kg ...............±8.0
2 kg ...............±3.0
1 kg ...............±2.5
500 g ...............±1.6
200 g ...............±1.2
100 g ...............±0.8
50 g ...............±0.6
20 g ...............±0.4
10 g ...............±0.25
5 g ...............±0.16
2 g ...............±0.12
1 g ...............±0.08
500 mg ...............±0.06
200 mg ...............±0.04
100 mg - 1 mg ...............±0.02

The best material for accurate weights is a platinum-iridium alloy (90 percent Pt, 10 percent Ir), from which the standard kilogram is made. Accurate weights are also made of nonmagnetic stainless steel (25 percent Cr, 20 percent Ni) and nonmagnetic chromium-nickel alloy (80 percent Ni, 20 percent Cr). Aluminum and tantalum can be used for milligram weights.

Weights and sets of weights are made with nominal mass values of 20, 10, 5, 2, and 1 kg, 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2, and 1 g, and 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2, and 1 mg. Weights of large mass (from 50 to 5,000 kg, for checking automobile and railroad car scales and for dynamometers), as well as smaller masses (to 0.1 mg, for checking and calibrating torsion microbalances), are used for special purposes.

### REFERENCES

GOST 7328-65: Giri obshchego naznacheniia. Moscow, 1965.
GOST 14636-69: Poverochnaia skhema dlia gir’ i vesov. Moscow,1969.

N. A. SMIRNOVA

References in classic literature ?
Here is the summing up of his various items, and their weight, as he computed it:
"A shot of 108 inches in diameter, and twelve inches in thickness, would weigh, in cast-iron, 67,440 pounds; cast in aluminum, its weight will be reduced to 19,250 pounds."
Together we wormed our way along the waving pathway, but when we reached the end of the branch we found that our combined weight so depressed the limb that the cave's mouth was now too far above us to be reached.
The Scarecrow, being light in weight, was caught up bodily and borne through the air until Tip luckily seized him by one leg and held him fast.
Had the windlass been in order it would not have been so difficult; as it was, I was compelled to apply all my weight and strength to every inch of the heaving.
The breath was leaving his lungs and his chest was collapsing under my weight. Whether it was merely the expelled breath, or his consciousness of his growing impotence, I know not, but his throat vibrated with a deep groan.
I felt strangely light as I came on deck, as though a weight had been lifted off my shoulders.
Researchers found the adults whose weights fluctuated the most during the first few weeks of program fared poorly in the weight loss outcomes one and two years later, as compared to the ones who lost a consistent number of pounds every week.
HUMAN beings have been using weights, not just for centuries, but for millennia.
Changing of the weights Flat handicaps For two- and three-year-olds the top weight must be at least 9-7; in open-aged handicaps 9-10 (9-7 for rated stakes).
For the majority of Americans, these self-reported actual weights are larger than what would be ideal, by an average of 17 pounds.
A monitor screen displays real time conditions of each blender including status, ID, alarms, blending rate, batches completed, formulas and actual weights of each ingredient.

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