Steven Weinberg

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Weinberg, Steven,

1933–, American nuclear physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Princeton, 1957. Since 1982 he has been a professor at the Univ. of Texas at Austin, having previously been on the faculties of Columbia, the Univ. of California, Berkeley, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard. He helped develop important theories of electromagnetic and nuclear particle interaction that were experimentally verified in 1982–83 when Carlo RubbiaRubbia, Carlo,
1934–, Italian physicist, Ph.D. Univ. of Pisa, 1957. A professor of physics at the Univ. of Rome and later at Harvard, Rubbia did his most important work with Simon van der Meer at CERN.
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 and Simon van der Meervan der Meer, Simon,
1925–2011, Dutch physical engineer. He spent nearly his entire career at CERN, where he did his most important work with Carlo Rubbia. They discovered the W and Z particles, which convey the weak force, one of nature's four fundamental forces (see weak
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 identified the subatomic particles W and Z. In 1979, Weinberg shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Abdus SalamSalam, Abdus,
1926–96, Pakistani physicist. After attending Government College at Lahore, he received a Ph.D. from Cambridge (1952). He taught in Lahore for three years before returning to England, first teaching mathematics at Cambridge (1954–57), then moving to
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 and Lee GlashowGlashow, Sheldon Lee
, 1932–, American physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Harvard, 1959. He became a professor at the Univ. of California at Berkeley in 1961 before moving to Harvard in 1967.
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. Among Weinberg's works are The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe (1977) and Dreams of a Final Theory: The Scientist's Search for the Ultimate Laws of Nature (1993). His To Explain the World: The Discovery of Modern Science (2015) is a personal account of the developments that led to modern science.

Weinberg, Steven

(1933–  ) physicist; born in New York City. He was an instructor at Columbia University (1957–59) before moving to the University of California: Berkeley (1959–69). In 1967 he produced a gauge symmetry theory that correctly predicted that electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces are identical at extremely high energies. The theory also predicted the weak neutral current, confirmed by particle accelerator experiments in 1973. As this theory was also independently developed by Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam, and extended by Sheldon Glashow, all three scientists shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics. Weinberg pursued his theoretical investigations in the unification of the fundamental forces of the universe at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1969–73) and Harvard (1973–83). He joined the University of Texas (1982) and concurrently became a consultant at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Laboratory (1983).