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Verona(vərô`nä), city (1991 pop. 255,824), capital of Verona prov., Venetia, NE Italy, on the Adige River. It is a transportation junction and a major industrial and agricultural center, with noted annual agricultural fairs. Its diversified manufactures include food and paper products, textiles, metals, machinery, and chemicals. Handicrafts using metal and marble, and the making of wine are two other important industries. Verona's position on the Brenner road to central Europe has given it commercial and strategic importance since Roman times. The date of its founding is obscure, but it was an important settlement before its conquest by Rome in 89 B.C. During the barbarian invasions of Rome (5th–6th cent. A.D.) Odoacer made it his fortress, and Theodoric later made it his favorite residence. Verona later became the seat of a Lombard duchy and then of Frankish counts. In the 12th cent. it was made a free commune. Along with other communes of Venetia, Verona formed (1164) the Veronese League, which joined (1167) the Lombard League in opposing Emperor Frederick I. Ezzelino da Romano ruled the city from 1226 to 1259. The story of Romeo and Juliet embodies the strife between the Guelphs (of whom Romeo's family were members) and the Ghibellines (Juliet's family) that tore Verona in the 13th and 14th cent. The Ghibelline Della Scala (or Scaligeri) family became lords of Verona in the 1260s; under Can Francesco (Can Grande) della ScalaScala, Can Francesco della
or Can Grande della Scala
, 1291–1329, lord of Verona, the greatest member of the pro-imperial, or Ghibelline, family that ruled Verona from 1277 to 1387 (see Guelphs and Ghibellines).
..... Click the link for more information. (1291–1329) the city reached its greatest power. His successors gradually lost all the city's possessions, and in 1387 Verona fell to Milan. Venice conquered Verona in 1405, and the city fared well under Venetian rule (to 1797). During the Renaissance, Verona produced major artists, e.g., the architects Giocondo and Sanmichele and the painters Pisanello and Paolo Veronese, who embellished both Verona and Venice. In the 19th cent. Austria, which then ruled Venetia, made Verona one of its chief fortresses in N Italy. The Congress of Verona (see Verona, Congress ofVerona, Congress of,
1822, at Verona, Italy, the last European conference held under the provisions of the Quadruple Alliance of 1814. The main problem discussed was the revolution in Spain against Ferdinand VII, and the congress decided that a French army, under mandate of the
..... Click the link for more information. ) was held there in 1822. After Austrian rule of Venetia was ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War (1866), Verona joined the kingdom of Italy. Because of its strategic position Verona was the target of heavy Allied bombings in World War II and suffered considerable damage. It was further damaged by retreating Germans in Apr., 1945. Among the numerous points of interest in Verona (some reconstructed after 1945) are the Romanesque Church of San Zeno Maggiore (9th–15th cent.), which has a fine triptych (1459) by Mantegna; the large Roman amphitheater (1st cent. A.D.); a Roman theater; the castle and bridge of the Scaligeri (both 1354); the Gothic tombs of the Scaligeri; the Romanesque cathedral (12th–15th cent.); the Gothic Church of Sant' Anastasia (13th–15th cent.); the Giusti Gardens (c.1580); and the Renaissance-style Loggia del Consiglio (15th cent.).
Verona(vərō`nə), borough (1990 pop. 13,597), Essex co., NE N.J.; inc. 1907. It is primarily residential.
a city in Veneto, northeastern Italy, at the foot of the Alps on both sides of the Adige River. Administrative center of Verona Province. Population, 254,900 (1969). It is an important transport junction on the roads leading from Venice to Milan and from the Paduan Plain to Austria (through the Brenner Pass). Machine-building, chemical, printing, textile, wood-processing, paper, and food industries are located in Verona. It is the site of periodic international agricultural fairs. It has an industrial institute.
Verona is an ancient settlement that became a Roman colony in 89 B.C. Near Verona, in 489, the Ostrogoth king Theodoric won a victory over Odoacer and made it one of his residences. Under the Lombards (568-774), Verona was the center of one of the duchies. In the beginning of the 12th century Verona was a city commune and later in the century entered the Lombard League. Despotism came to Verona before most other Italian cities. In 1387, Verona was annexed by Milan, and in 1405 it was conquered by Venice; along with Venice it became an Austrian possession by the terms of the Campo Formio Treaty in 1797. In 1866 it became part of the Kingdom of Italy.
Preserved are a Roman arena, a theater, the remains of fortifications (Porta dei Borsari, Porta dei Leoni), and the Ponte Pietra, which dates back to antiquity. The appearance of the old part of Verona, with its narrow straight streets, derives its character from the numerous medieval structures. In the center of Verona are two squares: Piazza delle Erbe (in classical times, a forum), with Gothic houses known as Casa dei Mercanti (1301), the Torre del Gardello (1370), and the baroque Palazzo Maffei (1668); and Piazza dei Signori, with the romantic Palazzo del Commune (begun in 1193), the Scaliger Palace (Palazzo del Goberno; late 13th century), and the Renaissance Loggia del Consiglio (1475-92, architect, Fra Giaconde). The church of Zeno Maggiore (fifth century, rebuilt in the ninth century and again during 1120-38; bronze portals, 11th and 12th centuries) and a cathedral (1139-87; with campanile, 16th century; architect, M. Sanmicheli) are romanesque. The church of Santa Anastasia (1291-1323 and 1422-81, its interior decorated with Pisanello’s frescoes) is Gothic. The Castle Vecchio (1354-75) and the Ponte Scaligero, which has towers at the entrance, are also Gothic. Verona’s Renaissance palaces (Pompei, 1530; Canossa, c. 1530; Bevilaqua, 1532) and gates (Porta Nuova, 1533-40; Porta Palio, 1557) were all designed by M. Sanmicheli. Verona has an archaeological Museum, the Castle Vecchio Museum, and a gallery of modern art.
REFERENCESSimeoni, L. Verona. Rome, 1929.
Schmid, E. Verona, Brescia. Frauenfeld, 1961.