Welsh


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Welsh

1
a language of Wales, belonging to the S Celtic branch of the Indo-European family. Welsh shows considerable diversity between dialects

Welsh

2
a white long-bodied lop-eared breed of pig, kept chiefly for bacon
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Welsh

 

a people living on the peninsula of Wales of Great Britain. The Welsh population is about 900,000, according to the 1970 estimate. Their native language is Welsh. Almost all Welsh people speak English. A significant number of believers belong to the Anglican Church; the other believers belong to nonconformist sects, mainly the Methodist Church.

The ancestors of the Welsh people were the Celtic tribes, the Cymru and Britons, which were driven into the hills of Wales by the Anglo-Saxons in the seventh century. Over the course of several centuries the Welsh steadily resisted their conquerors and were finally subdued only in the late 13th century. In southern Wales the people work mainly in industry (principally in the coal mines). In northern Wales the main occupation is agriculture (cattle raising). In the northern area, the Welsh language has been preserved to a certain degree, as well as indigenous features of material and spiritual culture.

REFERENCE

Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography.)

I. N. GROZDOVA


Welsh

 

Cymraeg, the language of the Welsh, who inhabit the peninsula of Wales, Great Britain. There are approximately 900,000 Welsh (1970 estimate). Most are bilingual. Welsh, together with Cornish and Breton, belongs to the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages. All of these languages trace back to Common British and separated in the fifth and sixth centuries. Welsh is divided historically into Old (eighth to 11th centuries), Middle (12th to 14th centuries), and Modern (since the 15th century) Welsh. The Modern Welsh language has four dialects: Venodotian (northwestern), Powysian (northeastern, central), Demetian (southwestern), and Gwentian (southeastern). The Welsh literary language developed from the southern and central dialects. Characteristic features of Welsh include, mor-phophonologically, a well-developed system of initial consonant sound shifts and vowel alternations and a fairly simple noun system. The verb system is highly developed; a tendency to replace old synthetic forms with new analytic constructions is observed in Modern Welsh. There are many lexical borrowings from Latin. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, Welsh began to acquire official status in Wales. (Books and periodicals are published, and Welsh is taught at the university level.)

REFERENCES

Morris-Jones, J.An Elementary Welsh Grammar. Oxford, 1953.
Collins-Spurrell Welsh Dictionary. Reedited by H. Lewis. London, 1960.

A. A. KOROLEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nia Llwyd Lewis, the council's manager of Welsh language services, told councillors on the committee today that she feared potential job seekers were intimidated by the Welsh essential category.
Where over 70% speak Welsh, random meetings of people will probably be meetings of Welsh-speakers.
I would like a loan to buy my home but I am not a Welsh speaker and being retired at my age, I have no intention of trying to learn Welsh to appease these Welsh-speaking bigots.
The total cost of implementing the Welsh Rates of Income Tax is yet to be finalised but is estimated to be between PS7.7 million and PS9.7 million.
On March 31 this year there were 427 non-school based staff who had registered on the council's HR system that they had Welsh language skills - 9.81% of total number registered on the system.
"This is definitely a USP in certain industries and key roles, so the Welsh Government's initiative could not have come at a better time."
It is his choice not to learn to speak Welsh, but he has absolutely no right to criticise the people who choose to speak in their native Welsh language.
For more than a century Labour has supported and promoted Welsh.
My mother, one of his six children, asked why he had not taught them Welsh. His answer was he did not want his children to suffer at school as he did.
"The Welsh Affairs Committee can use Welsh in evidence sessions, however debate in the Commons has previously been in English only and indeed Old French is used in the passing of laws in the House of Lords.
The report admits Welsh in Englishmedium schools is inconsistent and too often leads to low attainment.