Wenceslaus I

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Wenceslaus I,

d. 1253, king of Bohemia (1230–53), son and successor of Ottocar I. He invited large numbers of Germans to settle in the villages and towns of Bohemia and Moravia. In some villages peasants of Czech origin became a minority or were forced to submit to German-style feudal obligations. Many towns were granted self-rule, with charters modeled on that of MagdeburgMagdeburg
, city (1994 pop. 270,546), capital of Saxony-Anhalt, central Germany, on the Elbe River. It is a large inland port, an industrial center, and a rail and road junction. Manufactures include metal products, textiles, and chemicals.
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. After resisting the invasion of Batu KhanBatu Khan
, d. 1255, Mongol leader; a grandson of Jenghiz Khan. In 1235 Batu became commander of the Mongol army assigned to the conquest of Europe; his chief general was Subutai. Batu crossed the Volga, sending part of his force to Bulgaria but most of it to Russia.
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 (1241), Wenceslaus and his nobles built or rebuilt many castles, giving them German names. Wenceslaus received Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II's support in his attempt to acquire Austria but later backed Pope Gregory IX against the emperor. He was succeeded by his son, Ottocar II.
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