Rehabilitation with HA leaded to increased activity of the left transverse temporal gyrus (BA40, BA41), Wernicke's area
(left BA22), the left insula (BA13), and left superior frontal gyrus (BA8) (Figure 4, Table 3).
Rauschecker, "Wernicke's area
revisited: parallel streams and word processing," Brain and Language, vol.
BOLD signal changes Talairach co-ordinates Brain region BA Voxels X Y Z Voxel T Finger tapping (right-hand) LH motor cortex BA 4 5 465 -43 -35 -21 14.24 RH cerebellum - 3 105 14 -56 39 13.11 Verb generation LH Broca's area BA 44 4 170 -49 16 -3 7.86 LH Wernicke's area
BA 22 3 097 -58 -50 21 5.34 Passive listening LH Wernicke's area
BA 22 5 187 -64 -35 2 7.23 RH Wernicke's area
BA 22 2 776 56 -26 -6 5.89 BOLD = blood oxygen level-dependent; LH = left hemisphere; RH = right hemisphere.
According to the nerucognitive approach, Wernicke's area
needs enough nections to represent all phoneme features, phonemes, syllables, phonological words etc.
These areas correspond to Broca's area, Wernicke's area
, and the posterior language association area (Pinel, 2000).
If the Wernicke's area
of the brain is damaged, people have difficulty understanding spoken and written language.
However, it should be noted that posterior language function (Wernicke's area
), like many cognitive tasks, can be difficult to measure in patients.
Neurologists explain that speech is controlled by distinct parts of the human brain, specifically Broca's area and Wernicke's area
, discovered in 1861 and 1876 respectively.
In one patient suffering from damage to Wernicke's area
(the region in the left cortex that controls the understanding of language), functional MRI showed that the brain initially recouped by allocating speech comprehension to an area on the opposite side of the brain.
In the left hemisphere, Broca's area is found anterior to (in front of) the precentral sulcus and Wernicke's area
is found posterior to (behind) the postcentral sulcus (see Figure 4).
Carl Wernicke (1874) clearly illustrated a difference between aphasias produced by damage in the frontal lobe of the Left Hemisphere (LH) (i.e., Broca's area) and damage in the temporal lobe of the LH (i.e., Wernicke's area