Wettin


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Wettin

(vĕt`ĭn), German dynasty, which ruled in Saxony, Thuringia, Poland, Great Britain, Belgium, and Bulgaria. It takes its name from a castle on the Saale near Halle. The family gained prominence in the 10th cent. as leaders in the German drive to the east, which made Saxony and Lusatia German. It acquired (c.1100) the margravate of Meissen and soon expanded its domains to include most of SaxonySaxony
, Ger. Sachsen, Fr. Saxe, state (1994 pop. 4,901,000), 7,078 sq mi (18,337 sq km), E central Germany. Dresden is the capital. In its current form, Saxony is a federal state of Germany, with its pre–World War II borders reinstated as of Oct., 1990.
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 and ThuringiaThuringia
, Ger. Thüringen, state (1994 pop. 2,533,000), 6,273 sq mi (16,251 sq km), central Germany. It is bordered on the south by Bavaria, on the east by Saxony, on the north by Saxony-Anhalt and Lower Saxony, and on the west by Hesse.
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. In 1423, Frederick the Warlike of Meissen was granted Saxony and became (1425) elector of Saxony as Frederick IFrederick I
or Frederick the Warlike,
1370–1428, elector of Saxony (1423–28). As margrave of Meissen he was involved in disputes with his brothers and his uncles over the division of his father's territory.
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. The Wettin holdings were repeatedly subdivided. The most important division (1485) established the Ernestine line and the Albertine line, named for Frederick II's sons Ernest and Albert. The electoral title and most of Saxony passed in 1547 from the Ernestine to the Albertine line. The Ernestine line retained its possessions in Thuringia but split into several collateral branches. In 1918, when the house of Wettin was deposed in Thuringia and Saxony, its Thuringian holdings consisted of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, a grand duchy (see under Saxe-WeimarSaxe-Weimar
, Ger. Sachsen-Weimar, former duchy, Thuringia, central Germany. The area passed in the division of 1485 to the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty and remained with that branch after the redivision of the Wettin lands in 1547, when Elector John Frederick I
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), and of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (see under Saxe-CoburgSaxe-Coburg
, Ger. Sachsen-Coburg, former duchy, central Germany. A possession of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin, it was given by Ernest the Pious (d. 1675) of Saxe-Gotha to his son Albert.
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), Saxe-MeiningenSaxe-Meiningen
, Ger. Sachsen-Meiningen, former duchy, Thuringia, central Germany. The capital was Meiningen. A possession of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin, it became a separate duchy in 1681 under Bernard, third son of Ernest the Pious of Saxe-Gotha.
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, and Saxe-AltenburgSaxe-Altenburg
, Ger. Sachsen-Altenburg, former duchy, Thuringia, central Germany. Altenburg was the capital. Created a separate duchy in 1603, it was ruled by an Ernestine line of the house of Wettin.
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, which were duchies. From the branch of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha the Belgian, the English, and the Bulgarian dynasties were descended through, respectively, Leopold ILeopold I,
1790–1865, king of the Belgians (1831–65); youngest son of Francis Frederick, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After serving as a page at the court of Napoleon I and as a general of the Russian army, he married (1816) Princess Charlotte, daughter of the
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 of the Belgians, Prince AlbertAlbert,
1819–61, prince consort of Victoria of Great Britain, whom he married in 1840. He was of Wettin lineage, the son of Ernest I, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and first cousin to Victoria.
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 (consort of Queen Victoria), and Czar FerdinandFerdinand,
1861–1948, czar of Bulgaria (1908–18), after being ruling prince (1887–1908). A grandnephew of Ernest I of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, he was chosen prince of Bulgaria after the enforced abdication of Prince Alexander.
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 of Bulgaria. The English house changed its name to WindsorWindsor
, name of the royal house of Great Britain. The name Wettin, family name of Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, consort of Queen Victoria, as well as Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the name of the British royal house beginning with Edward VII (their eldest son), was changed to Windsor by
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; the Bulgarian branch was deposed in 1946. A cousin of Prince Albert married Queen Maria II of Portugal and became king consort as Ferdinand IIFerdinand II,
1816–85, king consort of Portugal (1837–53). The eldest son of Ferdinand, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, he married Maria II (Maria da Glória) of Portugal in 1836.
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 of Portugal. The Albertine line ruled in Saxony, obtaining hereditary royal rank in 1806; it also ruled Poland from 1697 to 1763 (see Augustus IIAugustus II,
1670–1733, king of Poland (1697–1733) and, as Frederick Augustus I, elector of Saxony (1694–1733). He commanded the imperial army against the Turks (1695–96), but had no success and was replaced by Prince Eugene of Savoy as soon as he
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; Augustus IIIAugustus III,
1696–1763, king of Poland (1735–63) and, as Frederick Augustus II, elector of Saxony (1733–63); son of Augustus II, whom he succeeded in Saxony.
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).
References in classic literature ?
He took my mother for his woman after he had killed Wettin.
Phillips earlier that year, it was originally purchased by Christian II, Elector of Saxony at the Leipzig Easter fair in 1602 and preserved in the Dresden Grunes Gewolbe; the casket was among the items awarded to and subsequently sold by the Wettin family in 1924.
REMARKS: The (missing) type material of Schlotheim's Asterophyllites equisetiformis (originally Casuarinites equisetiformis) originated from upper Stephanian strata of Wettin and Manebach, eastern Germany.
Elector Ernst, who inherited the electoral title in 1464, divided Saxony between himself and his brother Albert in 1485; these different lines of the Wettin dynasty came to be called the Ernestine and the Albertine lines.
Walk down to the Procession of Princes, the largest porcelain mural in the world, made with 25,000 tiles of Meissen porcelain and depicting the entire line of the Wettin dynasty.
By showing riding sovereigns along hundred metres it illustrates the millennial history of the Wettin dynasty.
Leroux pursues his analysis further in Luther's various forms of writing on martyrdom: in two funeral sermons, preached at the funerals of the two Wettin brothers, Elector Frederick the Wise (1525) and Elector John the Constant (1532); in his consolatory letters to bereaved parents, spouses, and siblings; and in his 1527 treatise, On Whether One May Flee from a Deadly Plague.
The same is true of the long chapter on music in Dresden, for Heartz demonstrates how centrally the Wettin monarchs contributed to opera Europe-wide, most notably through the leadership of Johann Adolf Hasse.
The reconstruction of the Royal Palace, home of the Wettin dynasty that established Dresden as a centre of culture dubbed the 'Venice of the East', is also due for completion in 2006.
Reinhard Strohm has commented that the Guelph dynasty (George I was a member of the Hanoverian branch) had almost greater justification in considering themselves heirs of the Saxon emperors than the Wettin elector in Dresden.
Other important collections include those of August Decker (died 17537), Royal Prussian Mining commissioner in Wettin whose Mineralienkabinet comprised some 6,000 specimens of "metals, ores, druses, and minerals"; a German mine superintendent named Biehler whose collection included 3,536 specimens of Saxon ore minerals; August Beyer (16807-17597), Royal Saxon Mining Commissioner, whose collection of metalliferous ores was built up over a 60-year period; and Christian Richter (died 17847), whose family included mine assessors and mining supervisors, all of whom helped build the family cabinet of ore minerals and surveying instruments.