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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a dessert prepared with fruit or berry juices, as well as with wine, milk, and other liquids. It is made by boiling the liquid with sugar (about 60 percent) and adding small quanti-ties (0.5 to 2.5 percent) of substances, such as pectin and gelatin, that give the dish a jelly-like consistency after it has cooled. Jelly must be pasteurized for prolonged preservation. Jelly-like dishes prepared with meat, tripe, game, or fish are called studeri, kholodets, orzalivnoe.



any one of the structuralized (semisolid) systems consisting of high-molecular-weight substances and low-molecular-weight liquids. Jellies are characterized by an absence of fluidity and by an ability to retain their shape, strength, and elasticity. These properties derive from the three-dimensional network of macromolecules that permeates the jelly and is held together by intermolecular forces and chemical bonds of various types. The two ways by which jellies can be formed are the gelation of mobile and viscous liquids and the swelling of solid polymers in the proper liquid media. Jellies are typically amorphous, homogeneous systems; the nodes of the three-dimensional networks sometimes contain minute crystalline regions (crystallites). Homogeneous jellies and nonstructured solutions of polymers can separate into different phases with the formation of condensation disperse structures, frequently referred to as heterogeneous jellies. Jelly formation is common in the technological processes for making plastics, rubbers, chemical fibers, and food products; it is also widespread in organic nature.


Voiutskii, S. S. Kurs kolloidnoi khimii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1975. Page 481.
Papkov, S. P. Studneobraznoe sostoianie polimerov. Moscow, 1974.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
or neurological Extravasation of damage/AS 6 at blood into the 1 min and 9 at surrounding 5 min Wharton's jelly caused by the rupture of a dilated umbilical artery Kumar Fetal branch artery Tachycardia, et al.
Decellularized Wharton's jelly ECM (WJECM) is not only similar to ACECM but also possesses some chondrogenic growth factors [22-24].
Propagation and differentiation of human Wharton's jelly stem cells on three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds.
Differentiation of Wharton's jelly primitive stromal cells into insulin-producing cells in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Davies said that while scientists first suggested in 1991 that Wharton's Jelly might contain precursor cells, no one really knew where to look.
The cushioning material or matrix within the umbilical cord known as Wharton's jelly is a rich and readily available source of primitive stem cells, according to findings by a research team at Kansas State University, Manhattan.
Results of a study published in the online version of the journal Stem Cells indicate that the tissue known as "Wharton's jelly" can be differentiated into various types of cells, which could make the unethical use of embryonic stem cells unnecessary.
The umbilical cord was focally deficient of Wharton's jelly and showed stricture and mild torsion adjacent to the abdominal insertion site.
Umbilical tested cord structure Histologic parameter (%) (N = 9) Umbilical artery(a) Acute inflammation 3/8 (38) Chronic inflammation 3/8 (38) Necrosis 2/8 (25) Normal 3/8 (38) Umbilical vein Acute inflammation 7/9 (78) Chronic inflammation 5/9 (56) Necrosis 5/9 (56) Normal 1/9 (11) Wharton's jelly Acute inflammation 8/9 (89) Chronic inflammation 5/9 (56) Normal 1/9 (11) Specimens without treponemes Odds ratio Umbilical No.
(La Jolla, CA) has patented methods for isolating and using prechondrocytes from the umbilical cord, specifically from Wharton's jelly, that give rise to chondrocytes which produce cartilage.