Whig


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Whig

Whig, English political party. The name, originally a term of abuse first used for Scottish Presbyterians in the 17th cent., seems to have been a shortened form of whiggamor [cattle driver]. It was applied (c.1679) to the English opponents of the succession of the Roman Catholic duke of York (later James II), a group led by the 1st earl of Shaftesbury. The Glorious Revolution of 1688, in which the Whigs were joined by many Tories (see Tory), assured a Protestant succession and the constitutional supremacy of Parliament over the king. Political parties during the 18th cent. were essentially groups of factions allied on specific issues. After the accession of William III advocacy of a constitutional monarchy no longer distinguished the Whigs, and during the reign of Queen Anne they became identified increasingly with aristocratic large landholders and the wealthy merchant interests. Under George I and George II most governments were composed of those with aristocratic connections, loosely Whig. The disgrace of Anne's Tory ministers who negotiated for the return of James II on her death, and the Jacobite risings of 1715 and 1745 stigmatized the Tories as supporters of absolute monarchy, and the Whig ministries of Robert Walpole and Henry Pelham dominated the period. After the accession (1760) of George III there were at first no real issues around which parties could polarize, but a Whig party gradually emerged, united largely in opposition to William Pitt, under the leadership of Charles James Fox. This party became identified with dissent, industrial interests, and social and parliamentary reform, and also with the Prince Regent, later George IV. Whig ministries under the 2d Earl Grey and Lord Melbourne were in power from 1830 to 1841, passing the first parliamentary reform bill. After this the Whigs became a part of the rising Liberal party, in which they constituted the conservative element.

Bibliography

See B. Williams, The Whig Supremacy (2d ed. 1962).

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Whig

1. a member of the English political party or grouping that in 1679--80 opposed the succession to the throne of James, Duke of York (1633--1701; king of England and Ireland as James II, and of Scotland as James VII, 1685--88), on the grounds that he was a Catholic. Standing for a limited monarchy, the Whigs represented the great aristocracy and the moneyed middle class for the next 80 years. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries the Whigs represented the desires of industrialists and Dissenters for political and social reform. The Whigs provided the core of the Liberal Party
2. (in the US) a supporter of the War of American Independence
3. a member of the American political party that opposed the Democrats from about 1834 to 1855 and represented propertied and professional interests
4. a conservative member of the Liberal Party in Great Britain
5. a person who advocates and believes in an unrestricted laissez-faire economy
6. History a 17th-century Scottish Presbyterian, esp one in rebellion against the Crown
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
For Lincoln, the 1852 election may have been the personal low point as he sought to promote the lackluster Whig nominee Winfield Scott while abiding his party's silence on the issues that consumed him.
De Krey also notes that the occupation of both Whig and Tory leaders was overwhelmingly mercantile.
The peculiar combination, in England, of Christian aspirations and Whig institutions may have helped set the English apart.
The most sophisticated writing on the Whig side--indeed the
And, despite the Whig fears of calamity, the sky did not fall.
Butterfield is spot-on when he warns against any narrative that "is telescoped into a whig version of abridged history":
Incomes of 9.00 [pounds sterling] per annum and above were to be taxed at a higher rate of 10%, a stipulation that made Pitt's Poor Law proposal unacceptable to the radical Whigs. One of Pitt's harshest critics, the Whig Edmund Burke, derided this "scheme of arbitrary taxation" as a form of robbery designed to enrich "the numerous poor, idle, and naturally mutinous people" (254, 269).
It might therefore be expected that the serious Whig split of 1794, which was also triggered by different reactions to French revolutionary principles and the French war, had some influence on the shaping of Malthus's first Essay on Population.
The term 'whig history' was first coined by Herbert Butterfield in his book The Whig Interpretation of History in 1931.
(21) In addition to offering personal reflections on the relationship between international law and human rights, based on his experience as a lawyer and federal judge, Cabranes described Moyn's book as a refutation of a "whig" version of the history of human rights.
In the context of the 1688 Constitutional Settlement, a series of Whig administrations lent official sanction to the Anglican Church while nonetheless allowing freedom of worship to other Protestant denominations.
Antislavery "Barnburner" Democrats in New York, and "Conscience Whigs" in Massachusetts and Ohio, equally alienated by President James Polk's pro-Southern expansionism, fought to write the Wilmot Proviso position on slavery containment into their respective party platforms.