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a British political party that existed from the 17th century to the 19th.

The Whig Party arose at the end of the 1670’s as a faction representing the interests of those noblemen who were be-coming bourgeois, and of the big commercial and financial bourgeoisie. These groups were opposed to the restoration of royal absolutism. After the coup d’etat of 1688-89 the Whigs passed the“Bill of Rights” and other measures aimed at asserting the supremacy of Parliament. The Whigs’ stay in power was marked by increased parliamentary corruption, a growth of the state debt, and the flourishing of speculation of the stock exchange, as well as land confiscations in Ireland. After a short interval the Whigs, led by R. Walpole and later by W. Pitt the Elder, were the ruling party from 1714 to 1762. In the 1760’s, 1770’s, and 1780’s, in the course of a complicated regrouping of political forces, a number of Whigs went over to the Tory Party. During the Great French Revolution the more influential Whig faction (whose ideological leader was E. Burke) actively supported war against France, while another Whig group, led by C. Fox, condemned it. During the first third of the 19th century the rapid growth of the economic power of the bourgeoisie strengthened the party’s liberal wing and prompted the Whigs to support the demands for a parliamentary reform, which, however, was adopted in 1832 in a very limited form. After this reform, the Whigs, who alternated in office with the Tories, conducted an antiworker policy and attempted to suppress the Chartist movement. In the middle of the 19th century the Whig Party became the party representing the interests of the industrial and commerical bourgeoisie. After uniting with other political groups, such as the free traders, the Whigs formed the Liberal Party of Great Britain.


Marx, K.“Vybory v Anglii: Tori i Vigi.” In K. Marx and F. Engels. Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 8.
Williams, B. The Whig Supremacy, 1714-1760, 2nd ed. Oxford, 1962.




a bourgeois party in the USA during the period 1834-54.

The Whig Party included northern industrialists, southern planters whose economic interests were linked with the North, and some farmers. The Whigs opposed the strengthening of federal power and favored the development of industry not only in the North but in the South as well. The Whigs were twice victorious in presidential elections (in 1840 and 1848). Diversified in its composition, the Whig Party had fallen apart by 1854: the northern Whigs joined the newly created Republican Party, and the so-called Cotton Whigs went over to the Democratic Party.

References in periodicals archive ?
In this struggle the Whigs can be thought in general to represent the business class and conservative interests in the North; under the guidance of Southerner Henry Clay, they stood for tariffs and protectionism and a program of "national development" focused on improving what we would now call infrastructure as an aid to business enterprise (Morrison, p.
But by 1856, the Whigs were effectively defunct and the Republican Party had emerged as a Northern party clearly opposed to slavery's expansion.
Further, the Whigs perceived the absolutist French nation to be the political and economic enemy of England.
Then, when after 1715 the whole apparatus of government power fell into the hands of the Whigs, they adopted a pro-French foreign policy that was somewhat contemptuous of Dutch power and that endured for nearly a quarter century.
politics as the leader of the Whigs in opposition to Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party.
With their vision of freer commercial, intellectual, and spiritual markets, their commitment to the rule of law, and their invention of constitutional government, the Whigs created what Friedrich Hayek called the "only set of ideals that has consistently opposed all arbitrary power," a philosophy that has at the same time brought about unprecedented material prosperity wherever it has been applied.
prosecutions of Whigs Stephen Colledge and Anthony Ashley Cooper, the
Since forming Afghan Whigs in 1987, Dulli {right} has enjoyed a prestigious and varied career.
The Whigs favored big business, banks and internal improvements like canals and railroads.
As a consequence, Do To The Beast sounds as much like Dulli's post-Whigs projects, the Gutter Twins, his collaboration with Mark Lanegan as it does the Whigs, but it can certainly stand alongside their best work.
As a consequence, Do To The Beast sounds as much like Dulli's excellent post-Whigs projects, the Gutter Twins, his collaboration with Mark Lanegan, and rotating collective the Twilight Singers, as it does the Whigs.
Georgian England had a two-party political system, but neither Tories nor Whigs had an official party platform, and there was a great deal of dissension in both parties' ranks.