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in Europe, fermented juice of apples; in the United States, unfermented apple juice, unless allowed to ferment, in which case it is typically known as hard cider. Selected apples are grated in a mill, and the juice is expressed and, for hard cider, fermented and filtered. The commercial product is usually pasteurized or treated with preservatives and is frequently blended to balance the chief constituents, sugar, malic acid, and tannin. In France cider is made principally in Normandy and Brittany. It is at its best after a year or two in cask. English cider from the southern and western counties is noted and rivals beer as a popular alcoholic beverage. Cider is popular also in Germany, Spain, and Switzerland. Perry is a similar beverage made from pears.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a low-alcohol (5–7 percent by volume) fruit wine obtained by the fermentation of apple juice. The characteristic qualities of cider are attributable to the taste and aroma of apples and to the saturation of the fermented beverage with carbon dioxide. Cider is generally made from late-season apples and may be sweet (sugar content, 10 g/l), semisweet (5 g/l), and dry (sugarless).

Cider originated in northern France, where it is the name given to any alcoholic beverage made from apples. It is consumed widely in Austria, Switzerland, Great Britain, and other countries. In the USSR, cider is produced in the RSFSR, Byelorussia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(food engineering)
Juice extracted from apples or similar fruits that has not been subjected to processing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


, cyder
1. an alcoholic drink made from the fermented juice of apples
2. US and Canadian an unfermented drink made from apple juice
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(Classless Inter-Domain Routing) An expansion of the original IPv4 addressing system that allows for a more efficient allocation of addresses. The original class-based method used fixed fields for network IDs, which was wasteful. For example, Class A and B networks can address 16 million and 65 thousand hosts respectively, and most organizations given those addresses never had intentions of putting that many computers on the Internet. See IP address.

From Fixed to Variable
CIDR changed the fixed fields into variable-length fields, allowing addresses to be assigned with finer granularity. The CIDR IP address includes a number that tells how the address is split between networks and hosts. For example, in the CIDR address the /18 indicates that the first 18 bits are used for network ID and the remaining 14 (there are 32 bits in an IPv4 address) are used for host ID (see supernetting).

Routing Is More Manageable
Blocks of CIDR addresses have been given to ISPs, who in turn disseminate them to their customers, which may be end users or smaller ISPs. CIDR reduces the burden on Internet routers by aggregating routes so that one IP address represents all the thousands of customers serviced by a single ISP. All packets sent to any of those customer addresses are routed via the one IP address, requiring only one entry in the routing table. In 1990, there were about 2,000 routes on the Internet. By 1995, there were more than 30,000, and without CIDR, the core routers on the Internet backbone would have been overloaded. See private IP address.

CIDR Prefixes
The following table shows the number of hosts allotted to each CIDR block. Note that the CIDR number /13, /14, etc. is called the CIDR "prefix" even though it is written at the end of the IP address. It is called the prefix because it represents the number of bits in the network ID, and the network ID is the "first" part of the IP address.

CIDR      Number ofPrefix    Hosts

     /13       524,288
     /14       262,144
     /15       131,072
     /16        65,536
     /17        32,768
     /18        16,384
     /19         8,192
     /20         4,096
     /21         2,048
     /22         1,024
     /23           512
     /24           256
     /25           128
     /26            64
     /27            32
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
These measures would save lives, cut crime, reduce hospital admissions and lessen the financial pressures that alcohol places on public services." To send a personalised postcard to your local MP visit: Megan Craig-Wilkinson, 16, died after drinking white cider at a New Year's Eve party Joanne Good, whose daughter Megan died
"He started drinking white cider and didn't know the difference.
Harmful and hazardous drinkers are mainly reliant on cheap vodka and white cider. These will cost considerably more.
The team found that high-strength white cider, which they say is mostly drunk by dependent and underage drinkers, is being sold for as little as 16p per unit of alcohol.
"The problem remains that alcohol is too affordable, too available and too heavily promoted." "Our latest price survey shows alcohol such a strong white cider can be bought in Middlesbrough supermarkets for as little as 16p per unit.
Without fail such victories will spawn myriad pictures of said underdogs pogo-ing up and down in their dressing room while showering the manager and chairman with Diamond White cider as some poor media representative attempts to get a single word of sense from anyone in the room.
While the currently-proposed opposition measures against strong cider are largely based on sales of cheap white cider, this makes up less than one per cent of the alcohol market - and declining.
WHEN I was last in Bournemouth where my mother lives, I was shocked to see a couple of young lads leave the local licensed corner shop with a huge two-litre bottle of white cider.
Boozy aftermath: Cans and bottles litter the streets of Manchester after UEFA final; Powers: MacAskill has legal backing; RED SQUARE VODKA; FROSTY JACK'S WHITE CIDER; TESCO IMPORTED LAGER; DINO PINOT GRIGIO; STRONGBOW CIDER; CASE OF CARLSBERG LAGER
"She particulalry loved to have sex when she was boozed up - after two or three bottles of Diamond White cider she was dynamite."
Megan Craig-Wilkinson died in her sleep after drinking 1.5 litres of strong white cider at a New Year's Eve party in 2013.