white-collar crime

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white-collar crime,

term coined by Edward Sutherland for nonviolent crimes committed by corporations or individuals such as office workers or sales personnel (see white-collar workerswhite-collar workers,
broad occupational grouping of workers engaged in nonmanual labor; frequently contrasted with blue-collar (manual) employees. American in origin, the term has close analogues in other industrial countries.
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) in the course of their business activities. White-collar crimes include embezzlement, false advertising, bribery, unfair competition, tax evasion, and unfair labor practices.

white-collar crime

‘a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation’. This is the definition which Edwin H. Sutherland gave in his book which started systematic sociological interest in this area: White-collar Crime (1949). Sutherland argues that criminal behaviour is not confined to working-class people. It is frequently, even routinely, found among people of high social status and respectability, but white-collar crimes are rarely treated as such.

Sutherland's focus was on crimes committed by managers and others in the course of their occupations, though the usage has often been broadened to include other areas of middle-class crime. In a study of 70 US corporations Sutherland found a large number of crimes including fraud, misrepresentation, infringe-ments of patents, and others. Much of his evidence did not come from criminal statistics but from the investigations of independent commissions, because very few of the offenders had been prosecuted. Even though the total amounts of money lost to companies, banks, etc., runs into many millions of pounds, it is still the case that white-collar crimes are very much under-represented in the CRIMINAL STATISTICS and are not stigmatized in the way that violent crimes or thefts from individuals are. The importance of Sutherland's work is in correcting common assumptions about the distribution of crime and in qualifying some arguments which have linked crime exclusively to deprivation.

References in periodicals archive ?
'After listening to the fraud, the deceit, the lies, the white-collar activities, crimes to that effect in other jurisdiction, this representation is of the belief that an expansion of the death penalty proposals right now should probably include white collar crimes that lead to massive deception; and fraudulent schemes that should have been prevented' he added.
'If they want to obtain results by applying old laws that is not possible as those involved in white collar crimes do not leave any traces'.
He further said the government is also devising certain policies to eliminate white collar crimes and culprits involved in the shameful act must be brought into justice.
Justice Saqib and his team also resorted to use of JITs in solving complicated cases of white collar crimes.
Justice (r) Javed Iqbal said that the anti-graft agency is the only organization in the world which has prescribed time frame for disposal of cases in 10 months for investigation of white collar crimes.
This was communicated to the Delhi High Court by Additional Sessions Judge Ramesh Kumar-II, who carried out inspection on September 4 following complaints from other inmates that Chandra brothers and others jailed for white collar crimes were enjoying "luxurious lifestyle".
What does punishment mean if we consider immunity for everyone with white collar crimes? Who deserves punishment then?
Javed Iqbal said that NAB has prescribed the efficient, effective and expeditious disposal of white collar crimes cases putting a maximum limit of 10 months which is a record as compared to other anti-corruption organisations.
ISLAMABAD -- Chairman National Accountability Bureau (NAB) Qamar Zaman Chaudhry Friday said NAB had established state-of-the-art forensic science laboratory for investigation of all cases especially cases of white collar crimes by using modern technology and techniques.
Over the past years, various industries have witnessed how the continued proliferation of white collar crimes triggered the government to ramp-up and strengthen their enforcement activities.
This law textbook introduces federal law governing the investigation, arrest, indictment, prosecution, and sentencing of a person suspected of committing white collar crimes, and explains the procedural issues of importance in this practice area.
by Times News Service The academics made a number of observations about draft laws relating to white collar crimes. -- ONA