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naphtha (năpˈthə, năfˈ–), term usually restricted to a class of colorless, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. Obtained as one of the more volatile fractions in the fractional distillation of petroleum (when it is known as petroleum naphtha), in the fractional distillation of coal tar (coal-tar naphtha), and in a similar distillation of wood (wood naphtha), it is used widely as a solvent for various organic substances, such as fats and rubber, and in the making of varnish. Because of its dissolving property it is important as a cleaning fluid; it is also incorporated in certain laundry soaps. Coal-tar (aromatic) naphthas have greater solvent power than petroleum (aliphatic) naphthas. Originally the term naphtha designated a colorless flammable liquid obtained from the ground in Persia. Later it came to be applied to a number of other natural liquid substances having similar properties. Technically, gasoline and kerosene are considered naphthas.
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Petroleum fraction with volatility between gasoline and kerosine; used as a gasoline ingredient, solvent for paints and rubber, and cleaning solvent.
Aromatic solvent from coal tar, either solvent naphtha or heavy naphtha.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A distillate of petroleum or coal; generally has low solvency and high volatility; used as a solvent in paints and varnishes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. a distillation product from coal tar boiling in the approximate range 80--170?C and containing aromatic hydrocarbons
2. a distillation product from petroleum boiling in the approximate range 100--200?C and containing aliphatic hydrocarbons: used as a solvent and in petrol
3. an obsolete name for petroleum
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005