Willem Hendrik Keesom

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Keesom, Willem Hendrik


Born June 21, 1876, in Texel; died Mar. 3, 1956, in Leiden. Dutch physicist. Graduated from the University of Amsterdam in 1900 and was a professor at the universities of Utrecht (beginning in 1918) and Leiden (beginning in 1923). He became the director of the cryogenic laboratory at Leiden in 1926. Keesom’s main scientific works were on low-temperature physics (studies of the equation of state of helium, work on thermometry, and so on). In 1926 he produced solid helium. In 1932 he discovered and studied the phase transition in liquid helium at a temperature of 2.19°K, below which it is found in a superfluid state (helium II). In 1935 he found a jump in the thermal conductivity of helium II at a temperature below 2.19°K and normal pressure.


In Russian translation:
Gelii. Moscow, 1949. (Contains mentions of Keesom’s works in the bibliographies for individual chapters.)


Itterbeek, A. van. “Prof. W. H. Keesom.” Nature, 1956, vol. 177, no. 4514.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Dutch physicist Willem Hendrik Keesom (1876-1956) had managed to reach a temperature of 0.5 degrees above absolute zero (0.5[degrees] K), but hope of getting lower temperatures by methods such as gas expansion, which had worked till then, seemed over.