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William,ruler of Albania: see William, prince of WiedWilliam, prince of Wied,
1876–1945, mpret [ruler] of Albania (1914), third son of William, prince of Wied, nephew of Elizabeth of Romania. A German army officer, he was selected by the great powers of Europe, with consent of the Albanians, to be ruler of the independent
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William,king of Scotland: see William the LionWilliam the Lion,
1143–1214, king of Scotland (1165–1214), brother and successor of Malcolm IV. Determined to recover Northumbria (lost to England in 1157), he supported the rebellion (1173–74) of the sons of Henry II of England.
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Frederick William,1882–1951, crown prince of Germany, son of William II. In World War I he commanded (1914) an army on the Western Front and was nominal commander in the German attack (1916) on Verdun. He fled to Holland in Nov., 1918, and renounced his rights to the throne, but he returned (1923) to Germany with the permission of the Weimar government. He was a supporter of Adolf Hitler for a time.
(Wilhelm). In Germany:
William I (Hohenzollern). Born Mar. 22, 1797, in Berlin; died there Mar. 9, 1888. King of Prussia from 1861 and German emperor from 1871. From 1858 to 1861, William was regent when King Frederick William IV became feeble-minded. In German nationalistic literature there were efforts to give William I the credit for forming a unified German monarchical state and to create the legend of “William the Great.” In fact, however, during William I’s reign Prussia and later the German Empire were ruled by Bismarck.
REFERENCESNarochnitskaia, L. I. Rossiia i voiny Prussii v 60-kh gg. XIX v. za ob”edinenie Germanii “sverkhu.” Moscow, 1960.
Sybel, H. Die Begrundung des Deutschen Reiches durch Wilhelm I, 3rd. ed., vols. 1–7. Munich-Berlin, 1913.
William II. Born Jan. 27, 1859, in Potsdam; died June 4, 1941, Utrecht Province, the Netherlands. German emperor and Prussian king from 1888 to 1918, grandson of William I. A representative of aggressive German Junker-bourgeois imperialism, William II actively contributed to the unleashing of World War I. He was overthrown by revolution on Nov. 9, 1918, and fled to the Netherlands. On Nov. 28, 1918, William II abdicated.
WORKSIn Russian translation:
Perepiska Vil’gel’ma II s Nikolaem II , 1394-1914. Moscow-Petrograd .
Memuary: Sobytiia i liudi. Moscow-Petrograd, 1923.
REFERENCESErusalimskii, A. S. Vneshniaia politika i diplomatiia germanskogo imperializma v kontse XIX v., 2nd ed. Moscow, 1951.
Schreiner, A. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Aussenpolitik 1871-1945 [2nd ed.], vol. 1. Berlin, 1955.
(Willem). In the Netherlands:
William I (Frederick). Born Aug. 24, 1772, at The Hague; died Dec. 12, 1843, in Berlin. Prince of Orange, count of Nassau, and king of the Netherlands from 1815 to 1840.
By the decision of the Congress of Vienna of 1814-15, William I was proclaimed king of the united Dutch and Belgian Kingdom of the Netherlands and grand duke of Luxembourg. He tried to suppress the Belgian Revolution of 1830, and until 1839 he refused to recognize the independence of Belgium. Popular discontent with his policies compelled him to abdicate in 1840 in favor of his son William.
William II (Frederick Georg Lodewijk). Born Dec. 12, 1792, at The Hague; died Mar. 17, 1849, in Tilburg. King from 1840 to 1849, grand duke of Luxembourg; son of William I.
In 1815, William II commanded the troops of the Nether-lands at the Battle of Waterloo. Under the pressure of the national liberation movement of the Belgian people he recognized Belgium’s independence in October 1830, which caused his father to remove him from his post as commander of the Netherlands armed forces. He was married to Anna Pavlovna, sister of the Russian emperor Alexander I. Under the influence of revolutionary events in a number of European countries in 1848, he introduced liberal reforms in the constitution, finances, and taxation.
William III (Alexander Paul Frederick Lodewijk). Born Feb. 19, 1817, in Brussels; died Nov. 23, 1890, at the Loo. King from 1849 to 1890, grand duke of Luxembourg; son of William II.
Alarmed by the European revolutions of 1848-49, William III was obliged to abide by the constitution and to leave the solution of a number of problems confronting the state to the parliament. Maneuvering between the conservatives and the liberals, he struggled against the latter and twice (1866 and 1867) prorogued the lower house.