William Gilbert(redirected from William Gilberd)
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See translations of his De Magnete by P. F. Mottelay (1893, repr. 1958) and S. P. Thompson (1901, repr. 1958).
Born May 24, 1544, in Colchester; died Nov. 30, 1603, in London or Colchester. English physicist. Court physician.
Gilbert advanced the first theory of magnetic phenomena. He was the first to make the assumption that the earth is a large magnet, and by magnetizing an iron sphere he showed that it acted upon a magnetic needle in the same manner as the earth. He suggested that the magnetic poles of the earth coincided with the geographic poles. Gilbert established that many bodies, like amber, have the ability to attract light objects after being rubbed. He investigated these characteristics and called them electrical (the Greek word for amber is elektron), for the first time introducing this term into the scientific vocabulary. Gilbert was also the first in England to criticize the teachings of Aristotle and to support the studies of Copernicus.
WORKSDe magnete, magneticisque corporibus et de magno magnete tellure. Physiologia nova. London, 1600.
De mundi nostri sublunaris philosophia nova. Amsterdam, 1651.
In Russian translation:
O magnite, magnitnykh telakh i o bol’shom magnite—Zemle. Novaia fiziologiia, dokazannaia mnozhestvom argumentov i opytov. Moscow, 1956.
REFERENCESLebedev, V. I. Istoricheskie opyty po fizike. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
D. R. “Uul’iam Gil’bert: K 350-letiiu so dnia smerti.” Elektrichestvo, 1953, no. 12.