William Graham Sumner


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Sumner, William Graham

 

Born Oct. 30, 1840, in Pa-terson, N.J.; died Apr. 12, 1910, in Englewood, N.J. American sociologist, economist, and publicist. Representative of social Darwinism. Professor of political and social science at Yale University.

Sumner, whose ideas developed primarily under the influence of H. Spencer, defended two main principles: the universality of natural selection, which he interpreted to include the idea that selection and the struggle for existence are natural in society, and the concept of the automatic, unchanging character of social evolution. Taking these principles as his point of departure, Sumner regarded social inequality as a natural and essential condition for the existence of civilization, advocated laissez-faire in social development, and opposed government regulation and attempts at social reform and especially revolution. His views expressed the interests of the middle strata of the American bourgeoisie, who, confronted by the intensification of state-monopoly tendencies, were demanding favorable conditions for free competition.

In Folkways (1906), which is based on an analysis of extensive ethnographic sources, Sumner developed the concepts of the “in-group,” the “out-group,” and “ethnocentrism” in “primitive” societies and the initial stages of human history. He characterized relations within the in-group as cohesive and relations between the in-group and the out-group as hostile. According to Sumner, hostility is associated with ethnocentrism, or man’s proclivity for appraising the environment through the prism of the cultural notions of his social (ethnic) group. Folkways is important in the history of social psychology and ethnopsychology not for its author’s social Darwinist principles but for its analysis of normative aspects of social life, certain features of customs, and other phenomena.

WORKS

Challenge of Facts and Other Essays. New Haven, Conn., 1914.
Folkways. Boston-New York, 1940.
The Science of Society, vols. 1–4 New Haven-London, 1927–28. (With A. Keller.)

REFERENCES

Kon, I. S. Pozitivizmv sotsiologii. London, 1964.
McCloskey, R. G. American Conservatism in the Age of Enterprise, 1895–1910: A Study of W. G. Sumner. New York, 1964.

A. B. GOFMAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Essays of William Graham Sumner. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Reiss, Jr., Ph.D., is a William Graham Sumner professor of sociology at Yale University and a lecturer at Yale Law School.
He finds, too, through perceptive review of the rhetoric of Senator John Sherman, William Graham Sumner, and Chief Justice Melville Fuller, among others, that the era often thought dominated by laissez-faire thinking actually arrayed a wide variety of political-economic ideas.
Among others, he cites William Graham Sumner, whose harsh views on Social Darwinism were often used by expansionists to justify imperialism.
Even though Fisher had studied with William Graham Sumner, he was never an advocate, as his professor had been, of total laissez-faire.
A fourth "myth" encompasses episodes in the history of "social Darwinism": alleged uses of Darwinism by laissez-faire apologists Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner; its role in debates over imperialism during the Spanish American War; and its use by eugenicists in the United States and later in Nazi Germany.
One place to turn is the work of William Graham Sumner. More than a hundred years ago the Yale sociologist noticed the damage being done to the old exceptionalism.
Nock, Rose Wilder Lane, Isabel Paterson, Garet Garrett, Lysander Spooner, and William Graham Sumner, he provides rich material for those who want a better appreciation of American individualism and classical liberalism.