Rosecrans, William Starke

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Rosecrans, William Starke

(rōz`krănz), 1819–98, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Kingston, Ohio. He served in the army from 1842 to 1854 and in Apr., 1861, rejoined as a volunteer. He became aide-de-camp to Gen. George B. McClellan and helped to organize the Ohio Home Guards. Made a brigadier general (May, 1861), he operated successfully against the Confederates in W Virginia (July, 1861–Apr., 1862). As commander of the Army of the Mississippi, he was victorious at Iuka and CorinthCorinth,
city (1990 pop. 11,820), seat of Alcorn co., extreme NE Miss., near the Tenn. line, in a livestock and farm area; founded c.1855. Manufactures include construction materials, machinery, furniture, apparel, transportation equipment, and prepared foods.
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 (Sept.–Oct., 1862). In Nov., 1862, Rosecrans succeeded to command of the Army of the Cumberland (formerly called the Army of the Ohio) and one month later opposed Braxton BraggBragg, Braxton,
1817–76, Confederate general in the U.S. Civil War, b. Warrenton, N.C. A graduate of West Point, he fought the Seminole and in the Mexican War was promoted to lieutenant colonel for distinguished service at Buena Vista.
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 in the battle of MurfreesboroMurfreesboro
, city (1990 pop. 44,922), seat of Rutherford co., central Tenn., on Stones River; inc. 1817. It is the processing center of a dairy, livestock, and farm area. Manufactures include appliance motors, packaged foods, boats, and outdoor furniture.
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, which ended in a Confederate retreat. In the Chattanooga campaignChattanooga campaign,
Aug.-Nov., 1863, military encounter in the American Civil War. Chattanooga, Tenn., which commanded Confederate communications between the East and the Mississippi River and was also the key to loyal E Tennessee, had been an important Union objective as
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, he ably outmaneuvered Bragg for a time, but the Confederates thoroughly defeated him at Chickamauga (Sept., 1863). Relieved of his command, Rosecrans for a time directed operations in Missouri. After resigning from the army in 1867, he became minister to Mexico (1868–69), Congressman from California (1881–85), and register of the Treasury (1885–93).

Bibliography

See biography by W. M. Lamers (1961).

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Healy, an ex-slave, became the first black American priest; William Rosecrans was Union general and commander of the Army of the Cumberland in the Civil War's Western front; Sylvester Rosecrans was a bishop in Cincinnati; and Brownson was the editor of a Catholic newspaper.
The battle of Chickamauga, fought between 19 and 20 September 1863, was a bloody affair which pitted the talents of Confederate General Braxton Bragg against those of Major General William Rosecrans, commanding the forces of the Union.
Although many of Castel's assessments are in keeping with common opinions, William Rosecrans is the one general whom readers might be surprised to find on the list of Union commanders receiving high praise from Castel.
The lieutenants range from those well-known partners of Grant--William Sherman, George Meade, Philip Sheridan, James McPherson, and Andrew Foote--to those with whom he had antagonistic relationships--John McClernand, Benjamin Butler, Lew Wallace, and William Rosecrans.
Keeping the Union army supplied with equines, and hundreds of thousands of tons of forage and grain, and millions of iron horseshoes, fell to highly efficient Quartermaster General Montgomery Meigs, a desk-bound soldier who lectured General William Rosecrans on the care and judicious use of horses and demonstrated to a complaining George McClellan, always tricky with the numbers, that he had received 10 times as many horses as he was reporting.
The Union campaigns between 1863 and 1864, spearheaded first by Union General William Rosecrans and later by Generals Grant and Sherman, relied on securing the railroads as springboards from which to capture Chattanooga and Atlanta.
William Rosecrans, adding only the provision approved by Stanton, that Rebels impressed into the service could take the oath and enlist in the Federal army.
In the summer of 1863, after Grant's capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi, and the Union victory at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the center of action moved to Tennessee, where Coolidge was with the Army of the Cumberland under General William Rosecrans ("Old Rosy," as his troops called him).
But, in the larger military contest between generals William Rosecrans and Braxton Bragg around Chattanooga, Forrest was both ineffective and frustrated.
Wallace, Charles Ferguson Smith, Lew Wallace, William Rosecrans, James McPherson, Grenville Dodge, and Peter Osterhaus, and Admirals Andrew Foote and David Porter.
He finds that the degree of moral courage explains success and failure in leaders: Lincoln's willingness to remove General William Rosecrans to the Department of Missouri, which enabled Grant to succeed at Chattanooga, stands in contrast to Jefferson Davis's belief that his rhetorical support of Braxton Bragg would end the internecine bickering in the Army of Tennessee.