William Bradford Shockley

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Shockley, William Bradford


Born Feb. 13, 1910, in London. American physicist.

Shockley graduated from the California Institute of Technology in 1932 and later continued his studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1936 to 1942 and from 1946 to 1954 he worked at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. From 1942 to 1945 he worked in the Department of War. From 1955 to 1958 he was director of the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. From 1958 to 1960 he was president of the Shockley Transistor Corporation, and from 1960 to 1963, director of the Shockley Transistor unit of the Clevite Corporation. Beginning in 1958, Shockley taught at Stanford University, where he was a professor from 1963 to 1975.

Shockley’s main research has dealt with solid-state physics, including semiconductor physics, ferromagnetism, the plasticity of metals, and the theory of dislocations. In 1948, Shockley discovered the transistor effect, for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1956 (with J. Bardeen and W. Brattain).


In Russian translation:
Teoriia elektronnykh poluprovodnikov: Prilozheniia k teorii tranzistorov. Moscow, 1953.


Les Prix Nobel en 1956. Stockholm, 1957. Pages 59–60.
Rzhanov, A. V. “Sozdateli‘tranzistora’.” Priroda, 1957, no. 3.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
William Shockley, Transistor Technology Evokes New Physics, Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1956 (http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1956/shockley-lecture.pdf).
William Shockley's eugenics crusade was castigated by other scientists in print and at public events.
Microelectronics as we know it, although somewhat macro by comparison with today's technology, began around 1907 at Bell Labs; by the 1940s, Bell Labs was researching semiconductors, and in 1948 one of their scientists, William Shockley, developed the transistor that could act as an amplifier.
In the Company of Owners uses the book equivalent of a journalist's anecdotal lead: It opens by tracing the origin of stock options to William Shockley, a brilliant but curmudgeonly scientist who, unhappy with the giant telephone company's refusal to let him share some of the success stemming from his ideas, decamped in the late 1950s for what later became Silicon Valley.
This excerpt from Spinoff: A Personal History of the Industry That Changed the World (Saranac Lake Publishing, Saranac Lake, New York, 2001) recounts the story of the eight young men who in 1957 left the employ of William Shockley to found Fairchild Semiconductor and, with it, today's semiconductor industry.
Perhaps they hear about Stanford as a source of talent and ideas; how Bill Hewlett and David Packard were early and important role models; how the scientist William Shockley brought silicon to the Valley in the 1950's via his company; and how this place became the world center of venture capitalism.
His experiments sparked outrage, with protesters declaring him a modern-day Hitler and there was further controversy when one of his first donors, Nobel physicist William Shockley, declared blacks were genetically inferior to whites.
Three Americans, William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Houser Brattain received the Nobel Prize in 1956 for their discovery of the transistor effect.
In 1939, William Shockley, a researcher at Bell Labs, wrote in his notebook that he thought it was possible to replace the clunky tube with semiconductors.
According to this theory, once John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley gave us a shove with their discovery of the transistor, we just followed Gordon Moore's famous law down the cost curve, like a skier going down a jump ramp.
At universities, these commonly arise when students or faculty invite to campus the likes of the late William Shockley or Louis Farrakhan or David Duke.
William Shockley was a colleague, though Quate had more of a social than a professional relationship with the co-inventor of the transistor.