James Wilson

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Wilson, James,

1742–98, American jurist, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. near St. Andrews, Scotland. He studied at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh and, after emigrating to Pennsylvania in 1766, taught Latin at the College of Philadelphia (now the Univ. of Pennsylvania). He studied law there under John DickinsonDickinson, John,
1732–1808, American patriot and statesman, b. Talbot co., Md. After studying law in Philadelphia and in London at the Middle Temple, he developed a highly successful practice in Philadelphia.
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, was later admitted to the bar in 1767, and became a successful lawyer within a few years. He was a member of the Pennsylvania convention (1774) and in the following year was elected a delegate to the Continental Congress. Although he strongly disputed Parliament's authority over the colonies, he opposed independence until July, 1776. Because he vigorously opposed the extremely democratic principles of the Pennsylvania constitution of 1776, he lost (1777) his seat in Congress. He became allied with the conservative faction and argued for it in the Congress of the Confederation (1782–83, 1785–87). Wilson is especially known for his part in the Constitutional ConventionConstitutional Convention,
in U.S. history, the 1787 meeting in which the Constitution of the United States was drawn up. The Road to the Convention

The government adopted by the Thirteen Colonies in America (see Confederation, Articles of, and Continental
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 of 1787, where he was a proponent of a strong executive. His influence in drawing up the Constitution was second only to that of James MadisonMadison, James,
1751–1836, 4th President of the United States (1809–17), b. Port Conway, Va. Early Career

A member of the Virginia planter class, he attended the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), graduating in 1771.
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. He was active in drafting the Pennsylvania constitution of 1790 and served as associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1789–98). He was the first professor of law (1789) at the College of Philadelphia. Wilson wrote a number of pamphlets, addresses, treatises, and lectures on law.

Bibliography

See biography by C. P. Smith (1956, repr. 1973); the collection of his works, 2 vol., ed by R. G. McCloskey (1804, repr. 1967).


Wilson, James,

1836–1920, American agriculturist and cabinet officer, b. Ayrshire, Scotland. He emigrated to the United States and settled (1851) in Connecticut, later moving (1855) to Tama co., Iowa, where he became a successful farmer. A member of the Republican party, he served in the state legislature (1867–73) and in the U.S. Congress (1873–77, 1883–85). Wilson was (1891–97) director of the agricultural experiment station and professor of agriculture at Iowa State (now Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology). As Secretary of Agriculture (1897–1913) under Presidents William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, and William Howard Taft, he greatly expanded the services of the department; a number of experimental stations were set up over the country, and the aid of experts and scientists was enlisted.
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Wilson, James

(1742–98) lawyer, political thinker, U.S. Supreme Court justice; born in Carskerdo, Scotland. He emigrated from Scotland in 1765, and after reading law under John Dickinson, he began a practice in 1768; by 1773 he had also begun the first of his lifelong speculations in land purchases. In 1774 he distributed to members of the First Continental Congress his pamphlet, Considerations on the Nature and Extent of the Legislative Authority of the British Parliament, in which he rejected any authority of the British Parliament over the colonies. He signed the Declaration of Independence and was a central figure at the Constitutional Convention (1787) where he argued strongly for popular election of both houses of Congress and the President. In 1789 he became one of the first six justices of the Supreme Court. His most important decision was in Chisholm v. Georgia, in which he was able to reaffirm his long-standing belief that sovereignty lay with the people of the U.S.A., not with the state. He had continued his land speculations even as a justice and was being threatened both by creditors and with impeachment when he died.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pickford Film Center; Culver, Kathleen; Pelo, Rich; Washatka, Kathy; Wilson, James has applied to sell beer/wine in a restaurant at 1318 Bay St., Bellingham, WA 98225.
Tristan Roberts and Andy Borgen are also back in the frame after recovering from injury although the back three trio of Ryan Wilson, James Rodwell and Mark Evans remain absent.
Connah's Quay Town are second after beating Llansannan 3-2, Carl Wilson, James Gambino and Brynley Preece their marksmen, James Davies claimed a hat-trick in Abergele Rovers' 5-3 success at Greenfield, Jon Stazicker's late double earned Rhuddlan Town a 4-1 triumph at Sychdyn and Mochdre Sports and Shotton Steel finished 1-1.
Benjamin Wilson, James Wrighton, Elliott Tiney and Andrew Spiers got together in 2007 and sold-out their Edinburgh Fringe Festival debut.
The film featured Morgan Freeman and his blues club, Ground Zero, local blues legend James Montgomery, Willie Nelson, Ruby Wilson, James "Super Chikan" Johnson, and local Delta musicians.
Wilson, James, propaganda Postcards of the Luftwaffe.
Nichols, David Orr, Mathew Petersen, Stuart Pimm, Sandra Postel, Andy Revkin, Stephen Schneider, Paolo Soleri, Paul Stamets, David Suzuki, Joseph Tainter, Betsy Taylor, John Todd, Vijay Vaitheeswaran, Peter Warshall, Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Andy Weil, Diane Wilson, James Woolsey.
* Naval Station Mayport Environmental Tier I Partnering Team (Diane Racine, Adrienne Wilson, James Cason, Terry Hansen, Michael Halil, Craig A.
The six-person team was chosen from among 82 employee applicants and consisted of: Team Leader, Daniel Canez, Manager of Global Business Development, based in San Antonio, Texas and Team Members: John Bryant, Eric Stentzel, Nadine Wilson, James Nance, and Stephanie Leichner all from various regional offices.
Fourth row, from left, are William Dawson, Kurt Kunkel, Todd Kirst, Robert Wilson, James Pound, Joseph Erler, and Gordon Perkins.
New Hampshire Bartlett, Josiah Thornton, Matthew Whipple, William New Jersey Clark, Abraham Hart, John Hopkinson, Francis Stockton, Richard Witherspoon, John New York Floyd, William Lewis, Francis Livingston, Philip Morris, Lewis North Carolina Hewes, Joseph Hooper, William Penn, John Pennsylvania Clymer, George Franklin, Benjamin Morris, Robert Morton, John Ross, George Rush, Benjamin Smith, James Taylor, George Wilson, James Rhode Island Ellery, William Hopkins, Stephen South Carolina Heyward, Thomas, Jr.
WALES possible XI: Hennessey, Mepham, Roberts, Williams, Davies, Smith, Allen, Brooks, Wilson, James, Bale