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(wĭn`chĭstər), city and district (1991 pop. 34,127), county seat of HampshireHampshire,
county (1991 pop. 1,511,900), 1,503 sq mi (3,893 sq km), S central England. Winchester is the county town. The county is divided into the administrative districts of Basingstoke and Deane, Winchester, East Hampshire, Eastleigh, Fareham, Gosport, Hart, Havant, New
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, S central England. Winchester was called Caer Gwent by the Britons, Venta Belgarum by the Romans, and Wintanceastre by the Saxons. Winchester was the capital of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of WessexWessex
, one of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England. It may have been settled as early as 495 by Saxons under Cerdic, who is reputed to have landed in Hampshire. Cerdic's grandson, Ceawlin (560–93), annexed scattered Saxon settlements in the Chiltern Hills and drove the
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. Even after the Norman Conquest, when London gradually gained political ascendancy, Winchester remained England's center of learning and attracted many religious scholars. At the time it was also a wool center. Winchester has long held a position of ecclesiastical influence, reflected in its magnificent cathedral; the Norman structure, which replaced a Saxon church, was consecrated in 1093. In the 14th cent. it was enlarged and transformed into the present Gothic cathedral. It is the burial place of Saxon kings and queens and of William of Wykeham, Samuel Wilberforce, Izaak Walton, and Jane Austen. In Winchester are remains of Wolvesey Castle, where Queen Mary I lived in 1554. St. Cross Hospital, founded in the 12th cent., is the setting for Anthony TrollopeTrollope, Anthony
, 1815–82, one of the great English novelists. After spending seven unhappy years in London as a clerk in the general post office, he transferred (1841) to Ireland and became post-office inspector; he held various positions in the postal service until his
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's The Warden. The Norman castle, where several parliaments met, was damaged by Oliver CromwellCromwell, Oliver
, 1599–1658, lord protector of England. Parliamentary General

The son of a gentry family, he entered Cambridge in 1616 but probably left the next year.
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's soldiers; a round table, supposedly of King Arthur, hangs in the Great Hall. Winchester is still a historic cathedral city, virtually untouched by modern industry and construction. Winchester College, a famed English public school, was founded (1382; opened 1394) by William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, and is still partly housed in 14th-century buildings.


(wĭn`chĕ'stər, wĭn`chĭstər). 1 Town (1990 pop. 11,524), Litchfield co., NW Conn., in the Litchfield Hills; settled 1732, inc. 1771. It includes Winsted (1990 pop. 8,254), an industrial center where ball bearings, paper and metal products, building materials, electrical equipment, and pet supplies are manufactured. Many early 18th-century mansions are in Winsted. Of interest are the little red schoolhouse (1815) and the Winchester Historical Society, located in the Rockwell House (1813). Winchester lies at the gateway to the Berkshire Hills, in a lake region.

2 City (1990 pop. 15,799), seat of Clark co., N central Ky.; inc. 1793. The center of a tobacco, dairying, and livestock area on the edge of the bluegrass country, it has food processing and plants making a variety of manufactures including steel, pharmaceuticals, mining equipment, furniture, paper products, apparel, and feeds. Henry ClayClay, Henry,
1777–1852, American statesman, b. Hanover co., Va. Early Career

His father died when he was four years old, and Clay's formal schooling was limited to three years.
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 made his last speech in Kentucky in the old courthouse there. Winchester is the headquarters of Cumberland National Forest.

3 Town (1990 pop. 20,267), Middlesex co., E Mass., a suburb of Boston; settled 1640, inc. 1850. It is chiefly residential with some light industry.

4 City (1990 pop. 23,365), seat of Frederick co., N Va., in the Shenandoah valley; settled 1732 near a Native American village in Lord FairfaxFairfax of Cameron, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Baron,
1693–1781, proprietor of the Northern Neck of Virginia, b. England.
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's domain, inc. as a city 1874. It is the trade, processing, and shipping center for an apple-growing, grain, livestock, and dairying district. Its products include motor vehicle parts, furniture, plastics, building materials, foods and beverages, lumber, flour, crushed limestone, and clothing.

George WashingtonWashington, George,
1732–99, 1st President of the United States (1789–97), commander in chief of the Continental army in the American Revolution, called the Father of His Country. Early Life

He was born on Feb. 22, 1732 (Feb. 11, 1731, O.S.
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 began his career as a surveyor there in 1748. During the French and Indian WarsFrench and Indian Wars,
1689–1763, the name given by American historians to the North American colonial wars between Great Britain and France in the late 17th and the 18th cent.
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, Winchester was a center for defense against Native American raids, and Washington, who commanded the Virginia troops, had his headquarters there. Gen. Daniel MorganMorgan, Daniel,
1736–1802, American Revolutionary general, b. probably in Hunterdon co., N.J. He moved (c.1753) to Virginia and later served in the French and Indian Wars and several campaigns against Native Americans.
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 lived in Winchester and is buried in Mt. Hebron Cemetery. During the Civil War, the city suffered severely, changing hands many times. Stonewall JacksonJackson, Stonewall
(Thomas Jonathan Jackson), 1824–63, Confederate general, b. Clarksburg, Va. (now W.Va.), grad. West Point, 1846. Like a Stone Wall
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 headquartered there during the winter of 1861–62, and Gen. Philip SheridanSheridan, Philip Henry,
1831–88, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Albany, N.Y. Although not a brilliant general, Sheridan's flair for leadership and his ready fighting ability made him the outstanding Union cavalry commander.
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 during the winter of 1864–65. Of interest are the old Presbyterian Church (1790) and the Museum of the Shenandoah Valley. Shenandoah Univ. (1875) is there. The city is the birthplace of Willa CatherCather, Willa Sibert
, 1873–1947, American novelist and short-story writer, b. Winchester, Va., considered one of the great American writers of the 20th cent. When she was nine her family moved to the Nebraska prairie frontier. She graduated from the Univ.
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 and Richard E. ByrdByrd, Richard Evelyn,
1888–1957, American aviator and polar explorer, b. Winchester, Va. He took up aviation in 1917, and after World War I he gained great fame in the air. He commanded the naval air unit with the arctic expedition of D. B. MacMillan in 1925.
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Winchester (Independent City), Virginia

5 N Kent St
Winchester, VA 22601
Phone: (540) 667-5770
Fax: (540) 545-8711

In northern VA, in the Shenandoah Valley, 70 mi. northwest of Alexandria. Settled 1738; established in 1752. Incorporated as a town in 1779; as a city in 1874. Serves as county seat for Frederick County. Name Origin: Named by James Wood, one of the town founders, for Winchester, England, his birthplace. Previously called Opequon, Frederick's Town, and Fredericktown

Area (sq mi):: 9.33 (land 9.33; water 0.00) Population per square mile: 2692.30
Population 2005: 25,119 State rank: 64 Population change: 2000-20005 6.50%; 1990-2000 7.50% Population 2000: 23,585 (White 79.40%; Black or African American 10.50%; Hispanic or Latino 6.50%; Asian 1.60%; Other 5.80%). Foreign born: 6.80%. Median age: 35.20
Income 2000: per capita $20,500; median household $34,335; Population below poverty level: 13.20% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $27,238-$28,791
Unemployment (2004): 3.20% Unemployment change (from 2000): 0.20% Median travel time to work: 20.10 minutes Working outside county of residence: 49.10%
Cities with population over 10,000:
  • Winchester County seat (24,779)

  • See other counties in .
    Counties USA: A Directory of United States Counties, 3rd Edition. © 2006 by Omnigraphics, Inc.
    The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



    a city in Great Britain, located in Hampshire, in the Itchen River valley. Population, 87,000 (1973). In the Middle Ages, Winchester was known for its large-scale wool industry. Today its population consists mainly of older people. The city retains traces of the regularly laid out Roman streets and medieval city blocks. Architectural landmarks include the city’s cathedral, which is mainly Gothic and dates from the 11th—14th centuries; the Hospital of St. Cross, with its Romanesque-Gothic church, dating from the 12th—13th centuries; and the Winchester College complex in English Gothic Perpendicular style, dating from 1387–95. The city also has some 19th-century neo-Gothic buildings.

    The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


    a city in S England, administrative centre of Hampshire: a Romano-British town; Saxon capital of Wessex; 11th-century cathedral; site of Winchester College (1382), English public school. Pop.: 41 420 (2001)
    Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


    An informal generic term for floating head magnetic disk drives in which the read-write head planes over the disk surface on an air cushion.

    The name arose because the original 1973 engineering prototype for what later became the IBM 3340 featured two 30-megabyte volumes; 30--30 became "Winchester" when somebody noticed the similarity to the common term for a famous Winchester rifle (in the latter, the first 30 referred to caliber and the second to the grain weight of the charge).
    This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (


    The code name for one of AMD's 64-bit CPUs introduced at the end of 2004. See also Winchester disk.
    Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
    References in periodicals archive ?
    Price, the treasurer of Ruthin Gun Club, admitted failing to comply with the conditions of his firearm certificate; possessing or acquiring a firearm, a Winchester rifle, without a certificate, and three of possessing ammunition without a certificate, including some for military use.
    The walnut fore-end is capped in steel as were vintage Winchester rifles so Chiappa has combined the features of original '92 carbines and rifles.
    Peru bought M1873 Winchester rifles and carbines from the USA while her agents in Europe obtained a wide assortment of rifles, including British Snider-En-fields, Belgian Combtains and Steyr-made Mie 1874 Gras.
    Colt revolvers, Winchester rifles, Sharps and Spencer rifles and scores of other arms, were created by skilled men as they filed drop-forged and cast parts "to fit" the guns we covet today.
    The finger piece is smooth, polished steel, not grooved and blued as on Winchester rifles.
    Repeating Arms for the manufacture of Winchester rifles.
    Repeating Arms (builders of Winchester rifles at the time) headed in a different direction in late 1982 by introducing the Model 94 Angle Eject.
    Whether it singlehandedly won the West is debatable, but there is no doubt the 900,000+1873 Winchester Rifles made between 1873 and 1919 certainly had an impact.
    I've installed the Timney Model 401 trigger on many Model 70 Winchester rifles. All went without a hitch, and the original bolt-type safety worked fine.
    The cowboys who worked the cattle and lived on the half-million acre ranch carried Colt sixguns and Winchester rifles as they worked, and rumor had it they would shoot to kill trespassers and bury them in "never to be found" graves.
    The company that builds Winchester rifles and shotguns has come a long way from the Volcanic Repeating Arms Co.