Winckler, Hugo

Winckler, Hugo

(ho͞o`gō vĭngk`lər), 1863–1913, German Orientalist. A professor at the Univ. of Berlin, Winckler was noted for his archaeological work. He helped to excavate the Phoenician city of Sidon. During excavations at Boğazköy in 1906–7 he discovered cuneiformcuneiform
[Lat.,=wedge-shaped], system of writing developed before the last centuries of the 4th millennium B.C. in the lower Tigris and Euphrates valley, probably by the Sumerians (see Sumer).
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 tablets in Hittite (or Kanesian), a principal source for knowledge of the HittitesHittites
, ancient people of Asia Minor and Syria, who flourished from 1600 to 1200 B.C. The Hittites, a people of Indo-European connection, were supposed to have entered Cappadocia c.1800 B.C.
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. The tablets represent the official archives of Hattusas, the capital of the Hittite empire, and detail foreign relations with the Egyptians, Babylonians, Cypriots, and Greeks c.1300 B.C. The tablets were deciphered in 1924 by the Czech scholar Friedrich Hrozny.

Winckler, Hugo

 

Born July 4, 1863, in Gräfenhainichen; died Apr. 19, 1913, in Berlin. German Assyriologist and archaeologist. Founder of the German Near East Society.

Winckler studied and published many cuneiform texts (diplomatic correspondence from Tell el-Amarna, chronicles of Sargon II, and other texts). During the archaeological excavations at Boghaz Kale (Turkey) in 1906-07, he discovered the palaces and fortifications of the Hittite capital Hattusas (Hattushash) and the archives of the Hittite kings. Winckler’s historical views are distinguished by extreme idealism and subjectivity. He and F. Delitzsch were the founders of panBabylonianism, a reactionary trend in Oriental studies.

WORKS

Altorientalische Forschungen, series 1-3. Leipzig, 1893-1906.
Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens. Leipzig, 1892.
Vorderasien im 2 Jahrtausend auf Grund der archivalen Studien. Leipzig, 1913.
In Russian translation:
Vavilonskaia kul’tura v ee otnoshenii k kul’turnomu razvitiiu chelovechestva. Moscow, 1913.

D. G. REDER

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