Windischgrätz, Alfred, Fürst zu

Windischgrätz or Windisch-Grätz, Alfred, Fürst zu

(äl`frāt fürst tso͞o vĭn`dĭshgrĕts`), 1787–1862, Austrian field marshal. He was military governor of Bohemia when the revolutions of 1848revolutions of 1848,
in European history. The February Revolution in France gave impetus to a series of revolutionary explosions in Western and Central Europe. However the new French Republic did not support these movements.
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 broke out in the Hapsburg empire. Given command in Vienna, he crushed the insurrection there, but because of the pressure of public opinion he was sent back to Bohemia. Meanwhile Prague had fallen to the revolutionists, and Windischgrätz's wife and eldest son had been killed in the insurrection. Windischgrätz recaptured (June, 1848) Prague after bombarding it and set up a military dictatorship over Bohemia. Vienna, where the revolutionists had again taken over, was also bombarded into submission (Oct., 1848) by Windischgrätz. With Felix zu SchwarzenbergSchwarzenberg, Felix, Fürst zu
, 1800–1852, Austrian premier; nephew of Karl Philipp zu Schwarzenberg. A soldier and diplomat, he was named (Nov., 1848) premier at the urging of his brother-in-law, Prince Windischgrätz, who had crushed the revolutions of 1848 in
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, he engineered the abdication (Dec. 2, 1848) of Austrian Emperor Ferdinand in favor of Francis Joseph. Windischgrätz was removed from command in 1849 when his campaign against the Hungarian revolutionists was checked at Godollo. He later held various government posts.
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