Two other aerodynamic tricks for flying slowly deserve mention, especially given their presence aboard personal airplanes: wing fences and vortex generators.
They often consist of items like wing fences (circled, top image), drooped wingtips, leading edge cuffs (to increase the wing's camber) and vortex generators (arrows, bottom image).
All paving, driveways, outbuildings, loose items, wing fences
and clotheslines are to be removed.
It's great to wing fences
but, sometimes, horses can overdo it.
European safety regulators have ordered Airbus A310 operators to check the type after at least three carriers suffered in-flight loss of wing fences
. All three reported wing-fence detachment from A310-300 aircraft, says the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).