Winter, Sir Gregory Paul

Winter, Sir Gregory Paul,

1951–, British biochemist, Ph.D. Cambridge, 1976. He has spent most of his career as a researcher at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, where since 2014 he has been professor emeritus. Winter shared half of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with George P. SmithSmith, George Pearson,
1941–, American biologist, b. Norwalk, Ct., Ph.D. Harvard, 1970. Smith has been a professor at the Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, since 1975 (emeritus since 2015). He shared half of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Sir Gregory P.
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 for their work on the phage display of peptides and antibodies; the other half of the prize was awarded to Frances H. ArnoldArnold, Frances Hamilton,
1956–, American chemical engineer, b. Edgewood, Pa., Ph.D. Univ. of California, Berkeley, 1985. Arnold has been a professor at the California Institute of Technology since 1986. She is noted for her work on the directed evolution of enzymes.
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. Winter used Smith's technique of phage display to produce antibodies on the surface of bacteriophages, enabling him to identify human antibodies that interacted most strongly with certain molecules and cells, and then improved the interactivity of the antibodies he identified. Winter earlier produced humanized antibodies, therapeutic antibodies derived from mouse antibodies that contain portions of human antibodies so as to avoid producing immune reactions in humans. His work has led to the development of therapeutic treatments for a number of diseases.
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