Winthrop, John

Winthrop, John,

1588–1649, governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, b. Edwardstone, near Groton, Suffolk, England. Of a landowning family, he studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, came into a family fortune, and became a government administrator with strong Puritan leanings. A member of the Massachusetts Bay CompanyMassachusetts Bay Company,
English chartered company that established the Massachusetts Bay colony in New England. Organized (1628) as the New England Company, it took over the Dorchester Company, which had established a short-lived fishing colony on Cape Ann in 1623.
..... Click the link for more information.
, he led the group that arranged for the removal of the company's government to New England and was chosen (1629) governor of the proposed colony. He arrived (1630) in the ship Arbella at Salem and shortly founded on Shawmut peninsula the settlement that became Boston. He was—with the possible exception of John CottonCotton, John,
1584–1652, Puritan clergyman in England and Massachusetts, b. Derbyshire, educated at Cambridge. Imbued with Puritan doctrines, he won many followers during his 20 years as vicar of the rich and influential parish of St. Botolph's Church, Boston, Lincolnshire.
..... Click the link for more information.
—the most distinguished citizen of Massachusetts Bay colony, serving as governor some 12 times. He helped to shape the theocratic policy of the colony and opposed broad democracy. It was while he was deputy governor and Sir Henry VaneVane, Sir Henry,
1613–62, English statesman; son of Sir Henry Vane (1589–1655). Early converted to Puritanism, he went to New England in 1635 and became governor of Massachusetts in 1636.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1613–62) was governor that Winthrop bitterly and successfully opposed the antinomian beliefs of Anne HutchinsonHutchinson, Anne,
c.1591–1643, religious leader in New England, b. Anne Marbury in Lincolnshire, England. She emigrated (1634) with her husband and family to Massachusetts Bay, where her brilliant mind and her kindness won admiration and a following.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and her followers, who were supported by Vane. The force of his influence on the history of Massachusetts was enormous. Winthrop's journal, which was edited by J. K. Hosmer and published in 1908 as The History of New England from 1630 to 1649 is one of the most valuable of American historical sources.

Bibliography

See The Journal of John Winthrop, 1630–1649 (1996), abridged ed. by R. S. Dunn and L. Yeandle; R. C. Winthrop, Life and Letters of John Winthrop (2 vol., 1864–67; repr. 1971); Winthrop Papers (5 vol., 1929–47); biographies by J. H. Twichell (1892), E. S. Morgan (1958), G. R. Raymer (1963), and F. J. Bremer (2003); R. S. Dunn, Puritans and Yankees (1962, repr. 1971).


Winthrop, John,

1606–76, colonial governor in America, b. Groton, Suffolk, England; oldest son of John Winthrop (1588–1649). He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, became a lawyer, and emigrated to Massachusetts Bay in 1631. He returned to England in 1634 and in 1635 was commissioned governor of the new colony at Saybrook (now Deep River), Conn., just when other towns were being settled in the Connecticut valley; by agreement he was recognized for a year as titular governor of all. In 1646, Winthrop founded New London, and in 1657 and annually from 1659 to 1676 he was elected governor of Connecticut. After the Stuart restoration (1660), he obtained a charter (1662) that led to the union (1664) of Connecticut and New Haven colonies, and he governed the colony with an administration practically independent of England. He gathered a considerable library and by his interest in chemistry and other sciences helped to promote scientific study in the colonies. Elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1663, he became the first member resident in America.

Bibliography

See biographies by T. F. Waters (1899) and R. C. Black (1966); R. S. Dunn, Puritans and Yankees (1962, repr. 1971).


Winthrop, John

(Fitz-John Winthrop), 1638–1707, American colonial governor of Connecticut, b. Ipswich, Mass.; son of John Winthrop (1606–76). He is commonly called Fitz-John Winthrop to distinguish him from his father and his grandfather. He left Harvard to serve in the English parliamentary army, returned to America in 1663, and served in King Philip's War (1675–76). He was a member of the council of Gov. Edmund AndrosAndros, Sir Edmund
, 1637–1714, British colonial governor in America, b. Guernsey. As governor of New York (1674–81) he was bitterly criticized for his high-handed methods, and he was embroiled in disputes over boundaries and duties (see New Jersey), going so far as
..... Click the link for more information.
, but after the latter's overthrow he helped restore Connecticut's separate government. After serving as commander of the unsuccessful invasion (1690) of Canada in King William's War, he represented Connecticut in England from 1693 to 1697 and was elected governor in 1698. He served ably until his death.

Bibliography

See R. S. Dunn, Puritans and Yankees (1962, repr. 1971).


Winthrop, John,

1714–79, American scientist, b. Boston, Mass., grad. Harvard, 1732. Because of his study of earthquakes, he is sometimes called the founder of seismology. He made scientific observations of sunspots and other astronomical phenomena, lectured on electricity, and was the first important scientist to teach at Harvard. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1766.

Winthrop, John

(1714–79) astronomer, mathematician; born in Boston, Mass. (descended from John Winthrop, colonial governor). The first thorough American scientist, he was a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Harvard (1738–79). He kept a detailed journal of the weather in Cambridge during 1742–79, and he predicted the return of Halley's comet in 1759. He performed advanced studies in astronomy and introduced algebra and calculus to the Harvard curriculum. He was an ardent patriot during the American Revolution.

Winthrop, John

(1587–1649) first governor of Massachusetts Bay; born in Edwardstone, England. A Puritan lawyer, he decided to emigrate. He signed the Cambridge agreement (1629) and was chosen as governor of the expedition while he was still in England. He arrived at Salem in 1630 and soon relocated the colony to Boston. He remained the preeminent leader of the colony, serving as governor during four periods (1629–34, 1637–40, 1642–44, 1646–49). He came into conflict with the "freemen" of the colony who resented his belief that governors and magistrates should rule as they best saw fit (he was a theocrat, not a democrat). He demonstrated the harsh and forbidding aspect of Puritan rule when he exiled Anne Hutchinson and her followers for their unorthodox views. He ably defended the colony's charter in a letter to the Lords Commissioners of Plantations (1638) and was elected as the president of the Confederation for the United Colonies in 1643. He became less popular in his last years as governor but he had piloted the Massachusetts Bay colony through its first years and had left a deep imprint upon its character. He wrote a journal that was published in part as A Journal of the Transactions and Occurrences in the Settlement of Massachusetts… 1630 to 1644. Throughout his career, his main intent was to erect a pious, godly, Puritan commonwealth.

Winthrop, John (“Fitz-John”)

(1638–1707) soldier, colonial governor; born in Ipswich, Mass. Son and grandson of colonial governors, he commanded Connecticut militia against the Dutch (1673) and the French (1690) and served as governor of Connecticut from 1698–1707.
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
Anticipating the thoughts of Winthrop, John Cotton, who was to migrate to Boston in 1633, preached to the departing party in 1630 on a text from II Samuel 7:10: 'Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them anymore, as beforetime'.
In his portrait of John Winthrop, John Cotton, and Nathaniel Niles, Michael Rosano draws a sharp contrast between the understanding and defense of liberty found in the traditional Christian political thought of the Puritans and that found in the Enlightenment liberalism triumphant in the American Revolution.