Endoscopy

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Endoscopy

 

examination by means of an optical instrument, or endoscope, of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus— esophagoscopy) and body cavities (for example, the abdominal cavity—laparoscopy). Endoscopes are introduced through natural openings (as in bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, or cystoscopy) or through surgical incisions (as in mediastinoscopy). Endoscopy is performed under local or general anesthesia.

The first attempts to examine the urinary bladder and other hollow organs were made as early as the 19th century, but the inadequacy of the endoscopes limited development of the procedures. The possibilities of endoscopy have greatly increased since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of glass-fiber light guides and of instruments of fiber optics based on such light guides. Examination of almost all organs has become possible, and the illumination of the examined object has increased. Conditions for photographing and filming (endophotography and endocinematography) have improved, and it is now possible to make monochromatic and color videotape recordings (modifications of standard cameras and motion-picture cameras are used).

Documentation of the results of endoscopic examination have made possible objective study of the dynamics of pathological processes occurring in any organ. Modern endoscopy plays a special role in diagnosing the early stages of many diseases. The procedure is often combined with endoscopic biopsy, therapeutic measures, and catheterization. Endoscopic offices and departments have been established in many large medical institutions, and some physicians now specialize in endoscopy.

REFERENCES

Lukomskii, G. I., and Iu. E. Berezov. Endoskopicheskaia tekhnika v khirurgii. Moscow, 1967.
Loginov, A. S. Laparoskopiia v klinike vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow, 1969.
Sokolov, L. K. Atlas endoskopii zheludka i dvenadtsatiperstnoi kishki. Moscow, 1975.

V. I. FEDCHENKO

References in periodicals archive ?
Fernandez-Urien et al., "Guideline for wireless capsule endoscopy in children and adolescents: a consensus document by the SEGHNP (Spanish Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition) and the SEPD (Spanish Spanish Society for Digestive Diseases)," Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas, vol.
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) has now been established as a first-line diagnostic tool for small bowel diseases [1].
Meng, "Polyp classification based on Bag of Features and saliency in wireless capsule endoscopy," in 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp.
Meng, "Bleeding detection in wireless capsule endoscopy images by support vector classifier," in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation, ICIA, pp.
"Detection of abnormalities in wireless capsule endoscopy frames using local fuzzy patterns," 20th Iranian Conference on, Biomedical Engineering (ICBME), pp: 286-291.
Thomas et al., "Seeing what's out of sight: wireless capsule endoscopy's unique ability to visualize and accurately assess the severity of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host-disease," Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol.
Hussin, "A novel, high-speed image transmitter for wireless capsule endoscopy," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol.
Small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease: A prospective comparison of wireless capsule endoscopy and computed tomography enteroclysis.
BALTIMORE -- New procedures for wireless capsule endoscopy may help prevent complications in patients for whom the procedure might otherwise be contraindicated.
MONTREAL -- Wireless capsule endoscopy holds particular promise in the management of children with inflammatory bowel disease, Dr.
A deep convolutional neural network based classification problem was studied for classifying digestive organs in wireless capsule endoscopy in [6].
Broide et al., "Diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease with wireless capsule endoscopy," Gut, vol.

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