Wolfcampian

Wolfcampian

[wu̇lf′kam·pē·ən]
(geology)
A North American provincial series of geologic time; lowermost Permian (below Leonardian, above Virgilian of Pennsylvania).
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Figure 12 indicates that the hydraulic head data fall into two groups: the Wolfcampian, Virgilian, and Missourian profiles form one group with higher head values and higher gradients, and the Mississippian and Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian profiles form a second group with lower head values and lower gradients.
The cross-section cuts through, from top to bottom, the Cenozoic strata [Tertiary Laramide Basin Fill], the Mesozoic strata [Cretaceous Pierre and Niobrara Shales and Dakota Sandstone; Jurassic sediments], and the Paleozoic strata [Permian (Upper Permian, Lower Permian: Wolfcampian), Pennsylvanian (Virgilian, Missourian, Desmoinesian, Basal Pennsylvanian), Mississippian, Silurian, Ordovician, and Cambrian formations].
The data (Figure 12) show that these lowermost units must be considerably more permeable (shallow hydraulic gradient) than the Virgilian-Missourian and Wolfcampian units (steeper hydraulic gradient) and, based on the separation of the hydraulic head values, must be hydraulically isolated.
To replicate these transitions in the Virgilian-Missourian and Wolfcampian, low-permeability segments referred to as chokes are inserted in the model.
The broad horseshoe shape of the Dakota outcrop is difficult to model with a two-dimensional grid, and potentiometric maps indicate that the Dakota is not hydraulically connected to the Wolfcampian because of the presence of the low-permeability Upper Permian-Jurassic unit [7].
By altering the flux until the head gradient matched the data (Darcy's equation (2) shows that there is a direct relationship between flux and hydraulic gradient), it was found that 0.0003 [m.sup.3] [d.sup.-1] of water (109,500 [m.sup.3] per 1 m.y.) enters each of the Wolfcampian (cross-sectional area 15,239 [m.sup.2]) and Desmoinesian (cross-sectional area 18,287 [m.sup.2]) and 0.0007 [m.sup.3] [d.sup.-1] (255,500 [m.sup.3] per 1 m.y.) of water enters the Virgilian-Missourian (cross-sectional area 33,526 [m.sup.2]).
However, for the 3.5, 3, 2, and 0 Ma models, the eastern BC values were calculated by interpolation between the 4.5 Ma model hydraulic head values and present-day hydraulic head values obtained from potentiometric surface maps of the Wolfcampian and Mississippian (Figures 9 and 11; [7]); see [h.sub.E] = [h.sub.i] arrows in Figure 13.
Paleozoic formations of Wolfcampian, Virgilian, Missourian and Dcsmoinesian series consisting mainly of shale, sandstone, and limestone are present in the most upper portions of the basin (USSC 1962; Wermund 1996; 1999).
One form from Arieges is possibly derived from Lioestheria andreevi of the Tambach Fm, dated of Wolfcampian from vertebrates (Sumida et al., 1996).
A partial femur of the advanced anthracosaurian amphibian Seymouria, a genus that ranges through several formations in the Wolfcampian and Leonardian (early Permian) of Texas.