Wood Plastics

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Wood Plastics


plasticized wood materials with improved physicomechanical properties; produced by combined mechanical, thermal, and chemical processing of the raw material. Wood plastics are divided into pressed wood (lignoston), wood laminates (laminated birchwood, delta wood, wood-resin laminate, and arktilit), and wood-pulp plastics.

Pressed wood (plasticized) is natural wood (most often, birch; less frequently beech, hornbeam, or maple) compacted under a pressure of 15-30 meganewtons per sq m (MN/m2), or 150-300 kilograms-force per sq cm (kgf/cm2), at temperatures up to 120°C. The compacting is accomplished in various ways: by pressing the blank into a press mold of smaller diameter, by squeezing the “blank between the plates of a hydraulic press or in a hand mold, or by pressing plates of wood that have been bent in advance. To increase the moisture resistance and stability of the shape of wood plastics, wood blanks are impregnated with synthetic resins before compacting. Moisture-resistant pressed wood may be produced without impregnation by intensifying the heat treatment of the blank in the softening stage, in which case resinlike products of the change of lignin and hemicellulose are formed in the wood.

Pressed wood is produced in the form of boards, beams, slabs, and plugs. It has high impact resistance and plasticity and a low coefficient of friction and increased moisture resistance. Pressed wood is used to make machine parts that operate under impact loads, as well as parts that are resistant to friction.

Wood laminates are materials based on a thin sheet (single-ply veneer) of wood of deciduous species. To produce wood laminates, birch veneer (less frequently beech or linden veneer) is impregnated (sometimes coated) with solutions of thermosetting synthetic resins, dried, assembled into packets, pressed in hydraulic platen presses, and heated under a pressure of 10-17.5 MN/m2 (100-175 kgf/cm2) and a temperature of 120°-150°C. To increase the strength and elasticity of wood laminates, they are reinforced with metal mesh or foil or with rubberized fabric. The addition of graphite and oil improves the antifriction properties of the plastics. Wood-laminate blanks are worked mechanically (by sawing or shaving). Wood laminates have good electrical-insulation and mechanical properties, including antifriction properties, and are resistant to the action of many chemical reagents.

Wood laminates are used as a building material in machine building and shipbuilding and as electrical-insulation and structural material in the production of parts for high-tension equipment. They are suitable for manufacturing bending dies and chucks, and with water lubrication and at friction temperatures not over 60°C, they can be used as heavy-duty bearings.

Wood-pulp plastics are shaped one-piece molded parts or board materials made in press molds by hot molding of pulverized wood (sawdust, shavings, fibers, and veneer trimmings) that are impregnated with solutions of synthetic resins and then dried. In some cases the wood first undergoes partial acid hydrolysis or steaming under pressure, or it is treated with an alkali. Wood-pulp plastics have high mechanical strength and friction resistance and good electrical-insulation properties. These materials are used to produce shaped one-piece molded parts (bearing inserts and bushings, gears, cable boxes, electrical-insulation parts, and caps for fractionating columns) and parquet flooring slabs.


Genel’, S. V. Drevesnye plastiki v tekhnike. Moscow, 1959.
Pressovannaia drevesina i drevesnye plastiki v mashinostroenii: Spravochnik. Edited by A. G. Rakin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The past decade has seen a rapid expansion of the wood plastics industry [1-3].
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The nonlinear feature raises a few issues about the rheology of the wood plastics melts.
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One of the major challenges for wood plastics is to optimize the processing operations of the wood filled plastics to reduce costs and compete with solid wood and conventional wood composite products.
Unfortunately, rheology studies on the highly loaded wood plastics are scarce in open literature.
As the first step to probe into the wood plastics rheology, capillary rheometry was chosen in this work because of the potential of applying the results to optimize the process and evaluate the formulations.
The cosmetic-pencil tubes are made from wood-fiber PP and PS concentrates that are sold by North Wood Plastics Inc., Sheboygan, Wis.
Some are based on concentrates from North Wood Plastics and some are compounded with wood flour in-house.
* North Wood Plastics Inc., Sheboygan, Wis., is a custom compounder with capacity for 10 million lb/yr, primarily of wood-filled masterbatches.