Wool Spinning

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Wool Spinning


a group of production processes used to convert wool or a blend of wool with chemical or cotton fibers into yarn.

Wool is blended to reduce the cost of yarn, to improve certain properties (such as wear resistance), and to permit standardization of production processes. Depending on the type of wool being processed, the length-to-weight ratio of the yarn, and the intended use of the yarn, the process used may be French, Bradford, semiworsted, or woolen spinning, which differ mainly in the type of carding.

The French system of spinning wool is used to make yarns with length-to-weight ratios from 15.5 to 42 tex from pure wool and wool blended with chemical fibers. The raw material is opened and blended before being carded. The sliver obtained is then processed by several passes through two-stage drawing frames to prepare it for combing, which is done on a batch-type comber. The sliver is then straightened on drawing frames. In order to remove stresses in the fibers and to fix them in a straightened condition, the sliver is smoothed on a machine; this process may sometimes precede dyeing. Sliver prepared in this manner is aged for several days in a humidified compartment, which helps reduce the static electricity in the fibers. The sliver is sent to a shop to be processed into a spun roving. The roving is again aged, after which it is delivered to ring spinning frames.

The Bradford spinning system produces yarns (usually from coarse and semicoarse wool) having a length-to-weight ratio from 30 to 83 tex. The principal features of the system are the use of continuous combers and roving (fly) frames to produce twisted roving.

Semiworsted spinning is used to make yarns with a length-to-weight ratio of 42 tex or higher from semifine, semicoarse, and coarse wool blended with chemical fibers. Carded sliver is processed in several transfers on drawing frames, one of which has an automatic thickness regulator, and is then sent directly to a ring spinning frame.

Woolen spinning is used to make yarns with a length-to-weight ratio from 42 to 400 tex from grease wool, chemical fibers, and the waste spinning materials from woolen and worsted spinning. Cotton fibers and reclaimed wool obtained by processing all-wool or part-wool rags may also be used. The components are blended on blending machines, after which oil is added and the stock is opened up on a mixing picker. The stock is carded on carding frames that include two or three roller cards. A flyer separates the fibers longitudinally into individual slivers, which are rubbed to form the roving that is sent on to a spinning frame. (See alsoSPINNING.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Other attractions included wool spinning demonstrations, chainsaw carving and a variety of street performers.
Safarov stated that from 2020, wool spinning and dyeing factory of Azerkhalcha will start operating within Sumgait Chemical Industrial Park.
Under the program, he said the women were provided training about sheep fattening, wool spinning, dying and rug making, besides they were also imparted training about the chick raising, egg production and seedling production.
Xinao Textiles Europe, the Italian subsidiary of Xinao Textiles Inc., one of the world leaders in the worsted wool spinning industry, has officially started business.
These activities are suitable for people with varying disabilities and include: * Vegetable and Herb Gardening * Horse Riding and Pony Trekking * Horse Drawn Wheelchair Carriage * Cooking Lessons in the Farmhouse Kitchen * An Introduction to Animal Care * Countryside Conservation Work * Seasonal Logging * Sheepdog Training * Wool Spinning and Knitting Many of these activities are ideal for visiting groups.
FBMI uses the sale proceeds to pay the artisans fair market wages, provide them with training in carpet weaving and wool spinning, run clinics that provide free healthcare services to the artisans, their families, and their communities, and offer free education to their children.
In addition to market stalls selling vintage items, crafts and foods there will be a range of traditional rural skills on display including dry stone walling, butter making, bee keeping, basket weaving, wool spinning, stick dressing, potting, wheat milling, rag rug making and quilting.
This year's event will host the usual array of livestock and equestrian classes - including demonstrations of butter making, sheep shearing and wool spinning. Further attractions and family activities will be announced shortly.
The project holds a medieval craft open day today from 11am-3pm, which will include tile and pottery making, spoon carving, wool spinning and herb display.
At Fowl Green Farm there will be craft stalls and demonstrations of sheep shearing and wool spinning.
As a humanitarian initiative of Shaikha Fatema bint Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, FBMI will offer demonstrations of carpet weaving and wool spinning.
FUW Caernarfonshire county executive officer Gwynedd Watkin said: "We were very excited to feature shearing displays, wool spinning, and the North Wales Shire Horse Society were present for the first time this year.