standards used for practical measurements in scientific research, production, commerce, and other fields. They differ from base standards, which are only used to calibrate other standards. Working standards are classified as measures, measuring instruments, measuring transducers, measuring assemblies, and measuring systems. The last two categories represent various combinations of the first three categories with additional auxiliary equipment needed for measuring, including current sources, switching and control devices, communications lines, stabilizers, thermostats, and specialized computing systems.
REFERENCESBurdun, G. D., and B. N. Markov. Osnovy melrologii. Moscow, 1972.
Tiurin.N.I. Vvedenie ν metrologiiu. Moscow, 1973.