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(vürts`bo͝ork), city (1994 pop. 128,875), capital of Lower Franconia, Bavaria, S central Germany, on the Main River. It is an industrial city, the center of a wine-producing region, and a rail and river transportation hub. Manufactures include machinery, electronics, clothing, and food. Brewing and publishing are also important.

Würzburg was originally a Celtic settlement and was made an episcopal see by St. Boniface in 741. After the breakup (10th cent.) of the duchy of FranconiaFranconia
, Ger. Franken, historic region and one of the five basic or stem duchies of medieval Germany, S Germany. The region was included in the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia, becoming in the 9th cent. a duchy and the center of the East Frankish (or East German) kingdom.
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, its bishops ruled a vast territory on both sides of the Main as princes of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1168 the bishops assumed the title of dukes of Eastern Franconia, of which they held a major part. During the Peasants' WarPeasants' War,
1524–26, rising of the German peasants and the poorer classes of the towns, particularly in Franconia, Swabia, and Thuringia. It was the climax of a series of local revolts that dated from the 15th cent.
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 the bishop of Würzburg temporarily lost (1524–25) his territory to the rebels, but he held out at his fortress of Marienberg against Götz von BerlichingenBerlichingen, Götz von
, 1480–1562, German knight and adventurer. The head of a band of free soldiers, he lost (1504) his right hand in the battle of Landshut and wore an iron one in its place. His forays against various cities earned him popular fame.
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. Later, the splendor-loving prince-bishops transformed (17th–18th cent.) the city into one of the finest residences of Europe and founded (1582) the Univ. of Würzburg, where the anthropologist and pathologist Rudolf VirchowVirchow, Rudolf
, 1821–1902, German pathologist, a founder of cellular pathology. He became professor at the Univ. of Würzburg (1849) and professor and director of the Pathological Institute, Berlin (1856).
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 and the physicist Wilhelm RoentgenRoentgen or Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad
, 1845–1923, German physicist. His notable research in many fields of physics, especially thermology, mechanics, and electricity, has been overshadowed by his discovery
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 taught in the 19th cent.

Secularized after the Treaty of Lunéville (1801), Würzburg passed (1803) to Bavaria; was made (1805) a separate electorate in favor of Ferdinand, the dispossessed grand duke of Tuscany; and reverted (1815) to Bavaria. The city was severely damaged during World War II. Noteworthy landmarks include the baroque former episcopal residence (1720–44; designed by B. Neumann); the Romanesque cathedral (11th–13th cent.), containing works by the sculptor Tilman RiemenschneiderRiemenschneider, Tilman
, c.1460–1531, German Renaissance sculptor, who worked in stone and wood. He was in Würzburg by 1483. In 1520 he was made burgomaster, but he was imprisoned in 1525 because of participation in the peasant insurrection, and little is known about
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; the Marienkapelle (1377–1479), a late Gothic chapel; the Old Main Bridge; and Marienberg fortress (the episcopal residence from the mid-13th to the 18th cent.).



a city in the Federal Republic of Germany, in the Land (state) of Bavaria; a port on the Main River. Population, 120,500 (1970). Wiirzburg is an important transportation junction. Its chief industries are machine construction (including automobiles) and the manufacture of typo-graphic machines and electronic equipment. There are publishing houses, a university (founded in 1582), a conservatory, and an administrative-economic academy.

Overlooking the Main are the Marienberg citadel (11th-16th centuries) with a round chapel (706), a castle (13th-18th centuries), and the Main-Franconia Museum, which contains the sculpture of T. Riemenschneider and others. There is also the Cathedral of St. Killian (basic construction 1042-1188), a number of medieval and baroque churches, a hospital (1576-85), the university building (1582-92), and the majestic residence of the bishop (1719-53; B. Neuman, architect; murals by G. B. Tiepolo). In the 18th century Wiirzburg was rebuilt under the direction of B. Neuman. In 1945 many of the buildings were destroyed.


Würzburg: Amtlicher Fiihrer. Wiirzburg, 1955.
References in periodicals archive ?
Gibson-Hill (1952:52) recounts that in 1815 Hare traveled with Raffles and his party on an extensive tour in Java that lasted from the end of April until the beginning of August (see Wurtzburg 1954:366-370).
First, those referred to were not sent into slavery, which was highly regulated in Java, thanks to Raffles (Wurtzburg 1954:264-265).
The first was written in Semarang, dated 1 January 1816, not long before he left Borneo for the last time and at a time when there was not only uncertainty about the future of his holdings, but also unrest among the EIC's Indian troops in eastern Java (Wurtzburg 1954:380-382).
(32) Details are given by Wurtzburg (1954:324-342).
in: Von der Erkenntnistheorie zur Kulturphilosophie (Wurtzburg: Konigshausen & Neumann, 2004), p.
Raffles told Lord Minto that Stewart and Robert Scott were "'two of the best informed and most respectable of our Eastern traders in the Malay seas" (Raffles to M into, 22 May 1811; cited by Wurtzburg 1954:141).
The matter was not settled in favor of the former route until May 1811, after the arrival in Malacca of Lord Minto, Governor-General of India, and his entourage (Boulger 1897: 101-103; Wurtzburg 1954: 122, 136, 141-142).
It would have been the trial referred to by Olivia Raffles in her letter to John Leyden (3 August 1808) in which she said "a cause of some consequence has been tried and gain'd for the plaintiff to the satisfaction of all" (Wurtzburg 1954: 64-65).
He would have been involved in the court case in 1808 as Registrar and approved publication of the details in his capacity as Licenser of the Press (Wurtzburg 1954: 64-65).
I should like to know how my Samba friend will fare, though I think he would not suffer a Dutch man even to save his life" (Letter-books c87: 254; see also Tarling 1964; Wurtzburg 1954: 466-8).
(2) Raffles lost 1000 pages of a detailed account of the "former history, present state, population and resources" of Borneo when the Fame, on which he was a passenger, burned shortly after his final departure from Benkulen in 1824 (Wurtzburg 1954: 685).
He died in 1836, greatly respected in Calcutta (Wurtzburg 1949).