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Wyler, William,1902–1981, American film director, producer, and writer, b. Mülhausen, Germany (now Mulhouse, France) as Willi Wilder. He came to the United States (1920) at the invitation of Carl Laemmle, a distant relative and the founder of Universal Studios, where Wyler worked until 1936. A meticulous and demanding craftsman, he worked mainly from literary novels and plays. After leaving Universal, Wyler worked with Samuel Goldwyn, Warner Brothers, Paramount, and others. His best-known films include Dodsworth (1936), which won him his first Academy Award nomination; Dead End (1937); Jezebel (1938); Wuthering Heights (1939); The Little Foxes (1941), based on the Lillian HellmanHellman, Lillian,
1905–84, American dramatist, b. New Orleans. Her plays, although often melodramatic, are marked by intelligence and craftsmanship. The Children's Hour
..... Click the link for more information. play; Mrs. Miniver (1942; Academy Award, best picture and director); The Best Years of Our Lives) (1946; Academy Award, best picture and director); and The Heiress (1949), an adaptation of Henry JamesJames, Henry,
1843–1916, American novelist and critic, b. New York City. A master of the psychological novel, James was an innovator in technique and one of the most distinctive prose stylists in English.
He was the son of Henry James, Sr.
..... Click the link for more information. 's Washington Square. During World War II, while serving in the U.S. Army Air Corps, Wyler made the documentary Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress (1944). After the war he directed Roman Holiday (1953); Ben Hur (1959; Academy Award, best picture and director); The Children's Hour (1961), from another Hellman play; The Collector (1965), based on John FowlesFowles, John,
1926–2005, English writer, b. Leigh-on-Sea, Essex, grad. Oxford, 1950. A complex, cerebral writer and a superb storyteller, Fowles was interested in manipulating the novel as a genre.
..... Click the link for more information. 's novel; and Funny Girl (1968).
See biographies by S. Kern (1984) and J. Herman (1996); B. Bowman, Master Space: Film Images of Capra, Lubitsch, Sternberg, and Wyler (1992); M. Harris, Five Came Back: A Story of Hollywood and the Second World War (2014).
Born July 1, 1902, in Mulhouse, in German Alsace. American film director.
Wyler studied at the Higher School of Commerce in Lausanne and at the Paris Conservatory. In 1921 he began working in Hollywood, where he directed his first films in the late 1920’s. From the mid-1930’s to early 1940’s, Wyler was one of the leading representatives of the trend toward social drama manifested in American cinema at that time. His films of the period, Dead End (1937, based on the play by S. Kingsley) and The Little Foxes (1941, based on the play by L. Hellman), as well as later ones, The Best Years of Our Lives (1946, based on a novel by M. Kantor) and The Liberation of L. B. Jones (1970, based on the novel by J. H. Ford), are distinguished by their acute presentation of social problems. During World War II, Wyler saw action while serving in the US Army Air Force; he also made documentary war films.
A master filmmaker, Wyler combines strict classical form with tense inner drama, while making the actor the main spokesman of the author’s ideas. These traits are best seen in his finest films, Wuthering Heights (1939, based on the novel by E. Brontè) and Carrie (1952, based on T. Dreiser’s novel Sister Carrie). Wyler’s talents are also evident in his amusing film comedies Roman Holiday (1953), How to Steal a Million (1966), and Funny Girl (1968).
REFERENCEKolodiazhnaia, V. Uil’iam Uailer. Moscow, 1975.
IA. A. BEREZNITSKII