X-Ray Diffractometer


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Related to X-Ray Diffractometer: XRD

x-ray diffractometer

[′eks ‚rā ‚di‚frak′täm·əd·ər]
(engineering)
An instrument used in x-ray analysis to measure the intensities of the diffracted beams at different angles.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

X-Ray Diffractometer

 

an instrument for measuring the intensity and direction of X-radiation diffracted by a crystalline object. The X-ray diffractometer is used to solve various problems of X-ray diffraction analysis. It permits the intensity of radiation diffracted in a specified direction to be measured with an accuracy of tenths of a percent; diffraction angles can be measured with an accuracy of tenths of a minute. X-ray diffractometers can be used for such tasks as the phase analysis of polycrystalline objects, the investigation of textures, the orientation of single-crystal blocks, the obtaining of a complete set of intensities of reflections from a single crystal, and the structure analysis of substances under various external conditions.

The X-ray diffractometer consists of an X-ray source; an X-ray goniometer, in which the specimen under study is placed; a radiation detector; and an electronic measuring and recording device. Unlike X-ray cameras, which use photographic film, X-ray diffractometers use quantum counters—scintillation, proportional, semiconductor, or Geiger counters—as detectors. The diffraction pattern of a specimen is obtained in an X-ray diffractometer in a sequential manner: the counter moves in the process of measurement and records the radiant energy incident on it over a certain time interval. X-ray diffractometers have better accuracy, greater sensitivity, and higher speed than

X-ray cameras. The process of obtaining data in an X-ray diffractometer can be completely automated, since there is no need to develop a photographic film. Such an automatic X-ray diffractometer is controlled by an electronic computer, and the data obtained are fed to the computer for processing. General-purpose X-ray diffractometers can be used for different X-ray diffraction investigations by fitting attachments to the goniometric device. Large laboratories use special diffractometers designed to solve particular problems of X-ray diffraction analysis.

REFERENCES

Kheiker, D. M., and L. S. Zevin. Rentgenovskaia difraktometriia. Moscow, 1963.
Kheiker, D. M. Rentgenovskaia difraktometriia monokristallov. Leningrad, 1973.

D. M. KHEIKER

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.