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Thereafter, the X:A ratio provides a signal that directs sexual fate and does so by binding competitively the promoter of the sex-determination switch gene xol-1 with X-signal elements (XSE = several genes located on the X-chromosome that are expressed early) and autosomal-signal elements (=genes located on autosomes also expressed early).
Recording of sex chromatin has gained importance in human genetics for establishing the relationship with X-chromosome and determination of the sex of individual has great medico-legal importance to solve many criminal and civil problems.
Reactivation of inactivated X-chromosomes is associated with cancer, ageing, and an increased risk of immune or autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (which mainly affects women), but the process is highly complex and also affected by developmental influences.
Evolution from XIST-independent to XIST-controlled X-chromosome inactivation: epigenetic modifications in distantly related mammals.
Thus, nocodazole should induce a high number of GFP+ embryos corresponding to increased X-chromosome missegregation.
This process, which occurs early during the development of the embryo, ensures that females, like males, have one functional copy of the X-chromosome in each cell.
X-chromosome in Lohi was highly stable in control as well as FUdR cultures expressing no gaps and breaks whereas the Suffolk X expressed 4 fragile bands.
Preferential X-chromosome inactivation, DNA methylation and imprinting.
By comparing STR pattern of X-chromosome allele of index case with X-chromosome alleles of the mother, the diseased or affected X-chromosome was ascertained.
Their immune systems are no match for those of wives and girlfriends because of the female X-chromosome, claim scientists in the journal BioEssays.
Recently a case report showed unipaternal disomy of entire X-chromosome to be the pathogenetic mechanism in such females.
Mackenzie Stephens, two, suffers from Turner Syndrome and so has one X-chromosome instead of two and was born with no ovaries.
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