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see nephritisnephritis
, inflammation of the kidney. The earliest finding is within the renal capillaries (glomeruli); interstitial edema is typically followed by interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and a small number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an inflammation of the calyxes, pelvises, and parenchyma of the kidneys caused by the colon bacillus, staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, and by other microorganisms. Primary, acute or chronic, and unilateral or bilateral forms of pyelonephritis are distinguished from secondary pyelonephritis, which is preceded by other diseases of the kidney and urinary tract. The morphologic changes associated with the disease take the form of clusters of cellular infiltrates. In chronic pyelonephritis, the kidney surface exhibits multiple cicatricial retractions. The cortical layer is thin and uneven.

Acute pyelonephritis often begins with fever, chills, and pain in the lumbar region. Urination is painful and frequent, and there may be headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Nitrogenous residues may increase in the blood in the early stages. The urine contains pus, red blood cells, albumin, and numerous bacteria, more than 100,000 per ml of urine. Treatment consists of antibacterial therapy with sulfanilamides, nitrofurans, and antibiotics. During the stage of fever, the intake of protein should be limited. Later the diet may be normal, with a copious intake of fluids, application of heat to the lumbar region, and antispasmodics.

The presence of chronic pyelonephritis is often revealed during urinalysis or the taking of blood pressure. The patient may complain of general weakness, headache, lack of appetite, pain in the lumbar region, and increased frequency of urination. The skin is pale and dry. The disease’s progress is bilateral. The urine’s specific gravity decreases and hypertension frequently develops, as does renal insufficiency. Diagnostic methods include urinalysis and examination of the renal functions, roentgenography, the use of radioisotopes, and occasionally biopsy of the kidneys. Treatment consists of prolonged antibacterial therapy with such drugs as nitrofurans, sulfanilamides, antibiotics, and NegGram. In the case of hypertension, hypotensive drugs are prescribed and the impaired urine flow is normalized. If such contraindications as renal insufficiency, obstruction of the urinary tract, and marked hypertension are absent, treatment in the Truskavets, Essentuki, Zheleznovodsk, or Sairme sanatoriums may be prescribed.


Pytel’, A. Ia., and S. D. Goligorskii. Pielonefrit. Moscow, 1961.
Ratner, N. A. Bolezni pochek i gipertoniia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The disease process resulting from the effects of infections of the parenchyma and the pelvis of the kidney. Also known as interstitial nephritis.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Huang et al., "Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: Critical analysis of 30 patients," International Urology and Nephrology, vol.
Sarna, "Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presenting as acute pleuritic chest pain: a case report," Journal of Medical Case Reports, vol.
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in children and adults--an 8-year study.
(2) Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis has been shown to be associated with transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and RCC.
Bryk, "Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in children: analysis by diagnostic modalities," Urologic Radiology, vol.
Bilateral xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. J Radiol Electrol Med Nucl 1976;57:891-3.
Additional injuries that may be related to the underlying neoplasm or its treatment regimen include TMA, AA amyloidosis, MN, IgAN, MPGN, pauci-immune crescentic GN, FSGS, minimal-change disease, acute interstitial nephritis, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Surgical pathologists should be aware of the importance of both correctly classifying the underlying renal or urothelial neoplasm and the concomitant nonneoplastic kidney disease that is likely to be present in these specimens.
This review will specifically address acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) nephropathy, acute and chronic pyelonephritis, renal and perirenal abscess, emphysematous pyelonephritis, emphysematous pyelitis, malacoplakia, diffuse and focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, fungal infections, tuberculosis (TB), and replacement lipomatosis.
Other indications were pyonephrosis (5 in open group and 2 in laparoscopy group), Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (3 in open group and none in laparoscopy group) and Tuberculosis of the kidney (1 in open group and none in lap group).
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. A clinico-pathological study with special reference to pathogenesis.