The pSS is characterized by xerophthalmia
, xerostomia, xerosis, and systemic extraglandular organ involvement .
The most common symptoms found in systemic rheumatic diseases are arthralgias (37-80%), arthritis (14-70%), Raynaud's syndrome (45-60%), leukopenia (11-42%), and other cytopenias, xerostomia (7-40%), xerophthalmia
(8-36%), nonspecific rash, and oral aphthosis .
Modern pharmacological evidence suggests that the total glycosides of paeoniae extracts from radix paeoniae alba could reduce serum immunoglobulin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, improve symptoms such as xerophthalmia
and xerostomia , and have bidirectional regulation effects on the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes to some extent, promoting or inhibiting the production of interleukin 1, interleukin 2, and tumor necrosis factor .
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a common chronic autoimmune disease which affects mainly the exocrine glands with a typical focal lymphocytic infiltration, potentially leading to xerostomia and xerophthalmia
Primary Sjogren's syndrome (SjS) (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by dryness such as xerophthalmia
and xerostomia, and even fatigue and pain.
VAD causes numerous health problems such as nyctalopia (night blindness), xerophthalmia
(abnormal dryness of the eyeballs), keratomalacia (corneal ulcer) and visual impairment (blindness in both eyes).
When she was 28 years old, she suffered a sudden and painful loss of vision in OS and after two weeks in OD, accompanied by xerophthalmia
. Visual field showed retinal sensibility reduction, especially at superior areas, whereas fluoroangiography was normal.
Deficiency of this vitamin results to xerophthalmia
, a serious medical condition manifested by the eyes' inability to produce tears, which leads to dryness.
(31) IgG4-related disease can be differentiated from SS by lower rate of xerophthalmia
, xerostomia and arthralgias as well as higher rate of allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, autoimmune pancreatitis, and interstitial nephritis.
, severe xerosis and/or cheilitis, myalgias etc.