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Dryness and thickening of the conjunctiva, sometimes following chronic conjunctivitis, disease of the lacrimal apparatus, or vitamin A deficiency.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an affection of the eyes expressed in dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea. It arises as a result of disturbance of tear secretion and chiefly of trophic disturbances. One of the immediate causes of xerophthalmia is avitaminosis A; it may arise in children when there are severe gastrointestinal diseases. The most frequent causes of xerophthalmia are trachoma, pemphigus, and chemical burns of the eyes. It is manifested by a sensation of dryness and pain in the eyes and heaviness of the eyelids; the cornea becomes cloudy and may undergo irreversible cicatricial changes. Vision is decreased.

Xerophthalmia is treated by medication; good results are obtained by transplanting the excretory duct of the parotid gland to the conjunctival sac to restore moisture to the eye.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The pSS is characterized by xerophthalmia, xerostomia, xerosis, and systemic extraglandular organ involvement [6].
The most common symptoms found in systemic rheumatic diseases are arthralgias (37-80%), arthritis (14-70%), Raynaud's syndrome (45-60%), leukopenia (11-42%), and other cytopenias, xerostomia (7-40%), xerophthalmia (8-36%), nonspecific rash, and oral aphthosis [4].
Modern pharmacological evidence suggests that the total glycosides of paeoniae extracts from radix paeoniae alba could reduce serum immunoglobulin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, improve symptoms such as xerophthalmia and xerostomia [24], and have bidirectional regulation effects on the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes to some extent, promoting or inhibiting the production of interleukin 1, interleukin 2, and tumor necrosis factor [25].
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a common chronic autoimmune disease which affects mainly the exocrine glands with a typical focal lymphocytic infiltration, potentially leading to xerostomia and xerophthalmia [1].
Primary Sjogren's syndrome (SjS) (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by dryness such as xerophthalmia and xerostomia, and even fatigue and pain.
VAD causes numerous health problems such as nyctalopia (night blindness), xerophthalmia (abnormal dryness of the eyeballs), keratomalacia (corneal ulcer) and visual impairment (blindness in both eyes).
When she was 28 years old, she suffered a sudden and painful loss of vision in OS and after two weeks in OD, accompanied by xerophthalmia. Visual field showed retinal sensibility reduction, especially at superior areas, whereas fluoroangiography was normal.
Deficiency of this vitamin results to xerophthalmia, a serious medical condition manifested by the eyes' inability to produce tears, which leads to dryness.
(31) IgG4-related disease can be differentiated from SS by lower rate of xerophthalmia, xerostomia and arthralgias as well as higher rate of allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, autoimmune pancreatitis, and interstitial nephritis.
xerophthalmia, severe xerosis and/or cheilitis, myalgias etc.