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(shē`än`) or


(shē`än`, sē`–), city (1994 est. pop. 2,114,900), capital of Shaanxi prov., China, in the Wei River valley. Situated on the Longhai RR, China's principal east-west line, it is an important commercial, tranportation, and tourism center in a wheat- and cotton-growing area. It has metallurgical, food-processing, and aerospace industries as well as plants making motor vehicles, chemicals, cement, electrical machinery, electric-car batteries, computer electronics, pharmaceuticals, and fertilizer.

Xianyang, one of several cities that have occupied this site, was (255–206 B.C.) the capital of the Ch'in dynasty. Excavations begun in 1974 some 20 mi (32 km) northeast of Xi'an at the tomb of Shih Huang-ti (emperor, 221–c.209 B.C.) uncovered an army of 6,000 life-size figures in battle formation. The 1990s brought the discovery nearby of some 800 royal tombs from the Han era, some containing hundreds of miniature clay soldiers, and the remains of sacrificial temples. The present city, then called Chang'an, was (202 B.C.–A.D. 25) the first capital of the Han dynasty and later the western capital of the T'ang dynasty (618–907), when it was a center of Buddhist, Muslim, and Nestorian Christian missionary activity. In the "Xi'an Incident" (1936), Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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 was kidnapped by Chang Hsüeh-liangChang Hsüeh-liang
or Zhang Xueliang
, 1898–2001, Chinese warlord, son of Chang Tso-lin. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name.
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 and imprisoned until he agreed to form a united front against the Japanese. The site of the incident is now a lush hot-spring resort with memorial pavilions.

The city has numerous T'ang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum, housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from the T'ang dynasty; one (781) commemorates the establishment of a Nestorian church. The city wall, dating from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), is still visible in places. In Xi'an are botanical gardens and Northwest Polytechnical Univ., Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., and many other institutions of higher learning. The city has a major airport. The name sometimes appears as Hsi-an.

References in periodicals archive ?
We are excited by the prospect of using the game-changing 787 to make Xi'an a new trans-Pacific gateway for China," said Jim Compton, United Airlines's vice chairman and chief revenue officer.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province in central China, at the eastern end of the Silk Road.
Xi'an is the most developed engineering centre of northwest China.
It takes us to the imperial tombs of the Han and Tang eras, allows us to witness Buddhist rituals in a famous temple and invites us to stroll through the city's Muslim district and to visit the Great Mosque of Xi'an.
Universal Internet Media is based in Suzhou, Jiangsu province and Xi'an Weihua Network is based in Xi'an, capital of Shaanxi province.
2]), Xi'an Xianvang International is physicallv the largest airport in north-western China.
2% stake in Xi'an City Commercial Bank and now owns 14.
Pursuant to the Cooperation Framework Agreement, the initial fund size is RMB200 million which will be operated as a private equity for investing in high-tech enterprises mainly in Xi'an High-tech Zone of Shaanxi Province.
Applied also recently broke ground on phase two of its new Global Solar R&D Center in Xi'an.
The violence committed in Xi'an against several defenseless nuns can only be firmly condemned," it said.
7 Xi'an, China When Fox Is a Thousand, Larissa Lai (Arsenal Pulp 1995-2004) A trickster fox spirit haunts the concubines and wives of ninth-century Changan (now Xi'an), Chinas imperial capital for 11 dynasties.
The gear shift is on the side - it's normally in the middle,'' said Li, part of a five-student, one-teacher delegation from the Chinese city of Xi'an that arrived late Wednesday in the William S.