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(shē`än`) or


(shē`än`, sē`–), city (1994 est. pop. 2,114,900), capital of Shaanxi prov., China, in the Wei River valley. Situated on the Longhai RR, China's principal east-west line, it is an important commercial, tranportation, and tourism center in a wheat- and cotton-growing area. It has metallurgical, food-processing, and aerospace industries as well as plants making motor vehicles, chemicals, cement, electrical machinery, electric-car batteries, computer electronics, pharmaceuticals, and fertilizer.

Xianyang, one of several cities that have occupied this site, was (255–206 B.C.) the capital of the Ch'in dynasty. Excavations begun in 1974 some 20 mi (32 km) northeast of Xi'an at the tomb of Shih Huang-ti (emperor, 221–c.209 B.C.) uncovered an army of 6,000 life-size figures in battle formation. The 1990s brought the discovery nearby of some 800 royal tombs from the Han era, some containing hundreds of miniature clay soldiers, and the remains of sacrificial temples. The present city, then called Chang'an, was (202 B.C.–A.D. 25) the first capital of the Han dynasty and later the western capital of the T'ang dynasty (618–907), when it was a center of Buddhist, Muslim, and Nestorian Christian missionary activity. In the "Xi'an Incident" (1936), Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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 was kidnapped by Chang Hsüeh-liangChang Hsüeh-liang
or Zhang Xueliang
, 1898–2001, Chinese warlord, son of Chang Tso-lin. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name.
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 and imprisoned until he agreed to form a united front against the Japanese. The site of the incident is now a lush hot-spring resort with memorial pavilions.

The city has numerous T'ang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum, housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from the T'ang dynasty; one (781) commemorates the establishment of a Nestorian church. The city wall, dating from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), is still visible in places. In Xi'an are botanical gardens and Northwest Polytechnical Univ., Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., and many other institutions of higher learning. The city has a major airport. The name sometimes appears as Hsi-an.

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References in periodicals archive ?
The forum will focus on the benefits that can be derived by countries through President Xi Jing Ping's Belt and Road initiative.
But nothing, it seems, was too good for President Xi Jing, the President of China.
But nothing it seems was too good it for President Xi Jing, the President of China.
The Air Chief lauded the sentiments emanating out of the recent visit of the President Xi Jing Ping and mentioned that this visit has left behind an indelible imprint.
China, of course, is the big risk to Asia but Premier Li and President Xi Jing Ping have begun to publicly speak of stimulus, a policy U-turn after their statement last summer at the Party Congress.
(SUNA) - L'Assistant du President de la Republique, Vice-President des affaires du Parti du Congres National, professeur Ibrahim Ghandour a recu jeudi un message ecrit au President de la Republique, Marechal Omer Al-Bashir, du President Chinois Xi Jing Ping, Secretaire general du Comite central du Parti communiste chinois.
"We find the timing of the release of the results of the survey conducted by Social Weather Stations (SWS) from September 15 to 23 suspect considering that such was made public on the day of Chinese President Xi Jing Ping's first state visit to the Philippines," Panelo said.
'I am glad we are all here and you responded to our invitation because I think there is really a need to understand the urgency of the flagship water project under President Duterte who made possible the funding for the project through a bilateral agreement with Chinese President Xi Jing Pin in October 2016 in a visit to China,' he said.
He had eyes only for Russia's Vladimir Putin and China's Xi Jing Ping.
Abeyagoonasekera went on to quote Xi Jing Ping from a statement on the day before the seminar (6th Nov) stating "China will accelerate the construction of the Silk Road economic belt and strengthen co-operation with countries involved".