Hsi Hsia

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hsi Hsia

 

(Chinese for western Hsia), a state created in the late 10th century by Tibeto-Burman Min (Tangut) tribes in what is now the Chinese province of Kansu and the western part of Shensi Province. In 982 the Mins began a successful struggle for independence from the Chinese Sung Empire; the Sung court recognized their independence in 1006. During the reign of Yuan Hao in Hsi Hsia (1032–48), the writing system invented by Yeh-li Jen-yung was introduced; today it is known as Hsi Hsia, or Tangut, writing.

From the second half of the 11th to the early 12th century, bloody wars were continuously fought between Hsi Hsia and Sung China. In 1227 the Mongols conquered Hsi Hsia and dealt cruelly with the vanquished Mins. Later, those who survived were assimilated by the Tibetans, Chinese, and Mongols.

Hsi Hsia writing was lost by the turn of the 17th century. In 1909, P. K. Kozlov discovered in Hará Hoto a library of books and manuscripts in the Hsi Hsia language. The language was deciphered through the efforts of scholars from many countries; a major contribution in this task was made by the Soviet scholar N. A. Nevskii.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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The Xi Xia kingdom thrived in northwestern China for some 200 years from the beginning of the 11th century.
One hanging scroll, for example, features old Xi Xia characters and current Chinese characters written next to each other in contrast.
The Liao emperor had fled and was given asylum by the Xi Xia. But descendants of the Liao imperial clan had installed an independent government headed by Yelu Chun in the territory of Yan.
In addition to the states named above, the system comprised several centralized, independent states including Xi Xia, Korea, Vietnam, the Dali kingdom, and Japan.
As a matter of fact, countries like Korea, the Xi Xia, and other Inner Asian states all paid tribute at various times to the Liao empire.
The next two, very lengthy chapters are devoted to in-depth analysis of excavations of sites at the Ejina River Oasis of the Xi Xia state, sites and finds associated with the Jin Dynasty, including evidence of commercial activity found at the Yanjialiang site, and analysis of blue and white porcelain found at these sites.
Geo-Exploration & Mineral Development Bureau of Ning Xia (NINGXIA) of #718, He Lan Shan Road West, Xi Xia District, Yin Chuan City, The People's Republic of China