Next, Miner emphasizes the manner in which Xicano
sovereignty does not preclude other Indigenous or Native sovereignties before delving into the history of Chicano art along the U.S.-Canada border.
GONZALEZ HERNANDEZ, Jose y GONZALEZ HERNANDEZ, Margarita (2013): "Rol del agente y estructuras de rendicion de cuentas en programas sociales me xicanos
. El caso del programa 3x1 en Zacatecas".
She places the experience of Indigenous Xicanos
as part of traditional Indigenous medicine to show how the Indigenous knowledge of the previous generations of Native mothers and grandmothers thrives.
The latter approach is clearly evident in literature like Anzaldua's Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza and in the Chicana art that Perez examines in her scholarship, such as Ester Hernandez's "La Virgen de Guadalupe Defendiendo los Derechos de los Xicanos
More than two decades after the acclaimed pastel drawings Guadalupe Series (1978) by Yolanda Lopez (no relation to Alma) and Ester Hernandez's radically feminist lithograph La Virgen de Guadalupe Defendiendo los Derechos de los Xicanos
(1975), Alma Lopez tapped into the cultural and political popularity of the Guadalupe when she produced her controversial digital print Our Lady (1999) (fig.
Initially published in Spanish under the pen name Adela Alonso in The Sexuality of Latinas, the first creative and critical anthology on the topic, "Virgencita, danos chance" is paired with the classic image of Ester Hernandez's La Virgen de Guadalupe defendiendo los derechos de los Xicanos
(The Virgin of Guadalupe defending Chicano rights).
In 1998 Red Pheasant Cree artist Gerald McMaster curated an exhibition entitled Reservation X: The Power of Place in Aboriginal Contemporary Art and also edited the exhibition's catalog, which includes his essay, "Living on Reservation X." In this essay he posits that the X in his title is a chiasmus, much like the X Alfred Arteaga identifies as the crossroads identity for Chicanos--or xicanos
. Originating in the script for a film by Shelley Niro, Reservation X, for McMaster, is the fictive and real space where "contemporary Indian people [live,] ...