Yalta Conference

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Yalta Conference,

meeting (Feb. 4–11, 1945), at Yalta, Crimea, USSR, of British Prime Minister Winston ChurchillChurchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer,
1874–1965, British statesman, soldier, and author; son of Lord Randolph Churchill. Early Career

Educated at Harrow and Sandhurst, he became (1894) an officer in the 4th hussars.
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, U.S. President Franklin Delano RooseveltRoosevelt, Franklin Delano
, 1882–1945, 32d President of the United States (1933–45), b. Hyde Park, N.Y. Early Life

Through both his father, James Roosevelt, and his mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt, he came of old, wealthy families.
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, and Soviet Premier Joseph StalinStalin, Joseph Vissarionovich
, 1879–1953, Soviet Communist leader and head of the USSR from the death of V. I. Lenin (1924) until his own death, b. Gori, Georgia.
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. Most of the important decisions made remained secret until the end of World War II for military or political reasons; the complete text of all the agreements was not disclosed until 1947. The Yalta conferees confirmed the policy adopted at the Casablanca ConferenceCasablanca Conference,
Jan. 14–24, 1943, World War II meeting of U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at Casablanca, French Morocco.
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 of demanding Germany's unconditional surrender. Plans were made for dividing Germany into four zones of occupation (American, British, French, and Soviet) under a unified control commission in Berlin, for war crimes trials, and for a study of the reparations question. Agreement was also reached on reorganizing the Polish Lublin government (supported by Stalin) "on a broader democratic basis" that would include members of Poland's London government-in-exile, which the Western Allies had supported. The conferees decided to ask China and France to join them in sponsoring the founding conference of the United NationsUnited Nations
(UN), international organization established immediately after World War II. It replaced the League of Nations. In 1945, when the UN was founded, there were 51 members; 193 nations are now members of the organization (see table entitled United Nations Members).
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 to be convened in San Francisco on Apr. 25, 1945; agreement was reached on using the veto system of voting in the projected Security Council. Future meetings of the foreign ministers of the "Big Three" were planned. The USSR secretly agreed to enter the war against Japan within three months of Germany's surrender and was promised S Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and an occupation zone in Korea. The secret agreement respecting the disposal of Japan's holdings also provided that the port of Dalian (Dairen) should be internationalized, that Port Arthur should be restored to its status before the 1904–5 Russo-Japanese WarRusso-Japanese War,
1904–5, imperialistic conflict that grew out of the rival designs of Russia and Japan on Manchuria and Korea. Russian failure to withdraw from Manchuria and Russian penetration into N Korea were countered by Japanese attempts to negotiate a division of
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 as a Russian naval base, and that the Manchurian railroads should be under joint Chinese-Soviet administration. China later protested that it was not informed of these decisions concerning its territory and that its sovereignty was infringed. The United States and Great Britain also agreed to recognize the autonomy of Outer Mongolia, and to admit Ukraine and Belorussia (Belarus) to the United Nations as full members. The Yalta agreements were disputed even before the Potsdam ConferencePotsdam Conference,
meeting (July 17–Aug. 2, 1945) of the principal Allies in World War II (the United States, the USSR, and Great Britain) to clarify and implement agreements previously reached at the Yalta Conference.
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 later in 1945. The subsequent outbreak of the cold war and Soviet successes in Eastern Europe led to much criticism in the United States of the Yalta Conference and of Roosevelt, who was accused of delivering Eastern Europe to Communist domination.

Bibliography

See studies by R. Buhite (1986), F. J. Harbutt (2010), and S. M. Plokhy (2010).

Yalta Conference

Allies developed plan for reconstruction of Europe (February, 1945). [World Hist.: Van Doren, 504]
References in periodicals archive ?
To help students evaluate the Yalta Agreement, introduce them to the background to the conference by outlining the war objectives of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union.
This violated the February 1945 Yalta agreement signed by Russia, the United States, and England.
By repeating it, and by publicly charging that the Yalta agreement was in the 'unjust tradition' of Hitler's deal with Stalin, Bush was simply engaging in cheap historical revisionism.
In this regard, fresher sources now indicate that, in this case, Stalin's decision may have been related to Allied assurances at Yalta that Berlin was Stalin's for the taking whenever he wished, and that, based on these assurances, Stalin's focus from February through early April 1945 was on gaining a stranglehold on Austria and the Danubian basin, which the terms of the Yalta Agreement did not address.
That undermined the ideological basis of the Yalta agreement, and that was very important.
Professor Schlesinger's theme was that despite longtime disparagement of President Roosevelt's wartime diplomacy, especially the 1945 Yalta agreement, the successful counter-revolutions in Central Europe were really "the fulfillment of Roosevelt's purposes at the Yalta conference.
Concerns were validated when the Soviets violated the Yalta agreement almost before the ink was dry.
Under the Yalta agreement, Stalin was permitted to scour the camps for Soviet citizens, collaborators and war criminals and to repatriate them by force.
As a German, he was deported when his land was given to Poland under the Yalta agreement.
Jeff feels that his mother's plight is emblematic of the nation's victimization at the hands of the Yalta agreement that gave half of Azerbaijan to Iran and half to the Soviets.
Careless chronology and copying result in such absurdities as senator Arthur Vandenberg's seemingly castigating the Yalta agreement of 1945 in 1944 and James Meade shaping economic recommendations in 1944 in the light of discussion in 1945.