course with its own indigenous allies and resulted in the Yamasee
Augustine, most of whom appear to have been settled in Guanabacoa and probably other areas of Cuba, consisted of Yamasee
, Timucua, Costa, and other groups who had resided at the mission, and were accompanied by Appalachee located nearby.
First, he states that "a lone Indian named Boocatee" approached South Carolinian officials in June 1717 about negotiating an end to the hostilities associated with the Yamasee
It was promised to the entire Muskogean language family: the Choctaw, the Chickasaw, the Seminole (along with some of their Mikasuki cousins), and the diverse peoples of the Creek Confederacy (including the Maskoke Creek, Alabama, Quassarte, and the Hitchiti, to name a few) and the non-Muskogean-speaking peoples who came with the Confederacy: the Euchee, the Natchez, and the Yamasee
. It was promised to the Shawnee (even those who where conspicuously absent from mandatory roll-taking), the Potawatomi, the Kickapoo, the Miami, the Illinois (including the Peoria, the Kaskaskia, the Wea, and the Piankashaw), the Ottawa, the Lenape and the Western Delaware, the Sauk and the Fox.
First, the ranching and the deerskin trade along the South Carolina coastal corridor that had characterized the colony's earliest years never recovered after the Yamasee
Indian War in 1715.
He stresses the vulnerable nature of life on the exposed frontier, noting the critical role played by the Yamasee
Indians as buffers against the Spanish in Florida and as a source of Indian slaves for the Carolinians.
Not surprisingly, the first victims were those traders who "happen'd to be in their Towns." (143) Those who were not killed outright were put to death "in the most cruel manner in the world." (144) As Yamasee
warriors attacked plantations throughout the South Carolina Lowcountry, the Lower Creek, Apalachee, Savannah, Euchee, Cherokee, and Catawba joined in the effort "to seize the whole Continent and to kill us or chase us all out of it." (145) Carolina's Indian slave trade diminished significantly after the war but intermittent hostilities continued.
Ethridge approaches this by looking at the successive European invasions of the region, beginning with De Soto's 1539-1543 incursion and ending with the Yamasee
War in the early eighteenth century.
After the Yamasee
War of 1715, South Carolina officials intervened on numerous occasions to extricate the weakened Chickasaw Nation from warfare with other Indian groups.
(17) During this transitional period, however, the colonial "wars" against the Westo, the Tuscarora, the Yamasee
, and numerous other peoples led to the enslavement and relocation of tens of thousands of Native Americans.
Usner thus convincingly places the French-Natchez conflict in the same kind of analytical framework recent historians have fruitfully used to reinterpret King Philip's War, the Iroquois-French wars, the Yamasee
War, the Pueblo Revolt, and other events.
For Creeks, the emerging slave society on their northeastern border must have been an alarming development.(34) In 1711, some Creeks checked the power of South Carolina by concluding a peace treaty with the French in Mobile.(35) Then, in 1715-16, neighboring Indians, including the Creeks, joined together in the Yamasee
War and nearly destroyed the colony.(36) The overture to the French and the uprising against the British may in fact have been responses to the rapid expansion of slavery that had occurred over the preceding few years.