His primary pattern of disharmony as determined by his symptoms, and his pulse and tongue diagnosis assessed from the Traditional Chinese Medicine perspective, was extreme yin deficiency syndrome often alternating with the opposite pattern of chi and yang deficiency
. I carefully balanced him each visit, according to the presenting pattern.
According to "Classification and determination of TCM constitution" published by China Association of Chinese Medicine (CACM) in 2009, the TCM constitution can be classified into nine basic types: balanced, qi deficiency, yang deficiency, yin deficiency, phlegm-dampness, damp-heat, blood stasis, qi stagnation, and allergic constitution.
Sample size (case) Heterogeneity test TCM constitution Experimental Control [I.sup.2] (%) P Qi deficiency 3869 8941 71 0.0003 Yang deficiency 3526 8798 69 0.001 Yin deficiency 3526 8798 73 0.0003 Damp-heat 3526 8798 67 0.002 Qi stagnation 3526 8798 69 0.001 Blood stasis 3526 8798 91 <0.00001 Allergic 3526 8798 53 0.03 TCM constitution OR 95% CI Z P Qi deficiency 1.10 0.87-1.39 0.78 0.44 Yang deficiency 0.83 0.62-1.10 1.29 0.20 Yin deficiency 0.74 0.53-1.02 1.85 0.06 Damp-heat 1.06 0.76-1.49 0.35 0.72 Qi stagnation 0.76 0.53-1.10 1.46 0.14 Blood stasis 1.48 0.80-2.74 1.23 0.22 Allergic 0.90 0.61-1.31 0.57 0.57 Figure 1: Meta-analysis of distribution of balanced constitution in dyslipidemia and ortholiposis.
GGT-1 is used to treat serious Yang deficiency
syndrome, and symptoms include spontaneous perspiration, chills, dry throat, leg cramps, dizziness, vomit, and frequent urination, in Shang-han-lun by Zhongjing Zhang, while GGT-2 is applied to relatively mild lung deficiency, and symptoms include cough, dyspnea, and asthenia, in Jin-kui-yao-lue.
Han et al., "Expression profiling of transcriptome and its associated disease risk in yang deficiency
constitution of healthy subjects," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol.
In this study, EFA results indicated that the syndrome pattern blood stasis was highly associated with qi deficiency, qi stagnation, phlegm turbidity, and heat, whereas association of yang deficiency with the same syndrome patterns was significantly lower.
Interestingly, analysis of all syndrome patterns showed that frequency of yang deficiency was significantly lower than that of qi deficiency, qi stagnation, phlegm turbidity, and heat.
Compared to males females showed significantly more serious Yang deficiency
(Table 5(a)), but age was not correlated with Yang deficiency
The classification criteria of syndrome elements were (1) six-excess external contraction: wind, cold, dampness, dryness, and fire; (2) five endogenous qi: internal wind, internal cold, internal dampness, internal dryness, and internal fire; (3) factors related to gas: qi deficiency, qi stagnation, qi block, qi counterflow, qi fall, and qi collapse; (4) factors related to blood: blood deficiency, blood stasis, blood collapse, blood dryness, and bleeding; (5) factors related to yin and yang: yin deficiency, yang deficiency
, yin exuberance, and yang hyperactivity; (6) others: poison, excessive fluid, and phlegm turbidity.
The syndrome element date we have measured in the experiment includes forty-five indicators: Yang Deficiency
, Yang Hyperactivity, Exterior, Qi Deficiency, Qi Sinking, Qi Counterflow, Blood Stasis, Blood Cold, Stirring Wind, Retained Fluid, Fluid Depletion, External Wind, Summer Heat, Dryness, Food Accumulation, Gallbladder, Large Intestine, Stomach, Bladder, Small Intestine, Chest and Diaphragm, Sinew and Bone, and so on.
The Yang deficiency
constitution is linked to a series of cold symptoms characterized by a cold body and limbs owing to an insufficiency of Yang qi, which fails to warm the body and leads to a Yang deficiency-induced internal cold (cold-intolerant) .
TCM constitutional types are commonly assessed using Wang's 'Rule of Nine.'  A previous report by Lin and colleagues  found that the most common TCM constitutional types in persons with mild cognitive impairment were 'qi deficiency' (22%) (i.e., inability of qi and blood to nourish the body), 'blood stasis' (18%) (i.e., poor blood flow), 'yang deficiency
' (17%) (i.e., lack of body warmth), and 'phlegm dampness' (11%) (i.e., blockage of other body fluids).