Taking up life in Yangchow as a "professional amateur," admired for his poetry and his painting, he lived comfortably off the hospitality of wealthy patrons such as the Ma brothers.
Hsu conceives of eighteenth-century Yangchow painting as "an artistic product shaped by a collective social and cultural experience," not by the creativity of individual artists.
Why surface effects were more readily explored in the genres of figure painting or birds and flowers than in landscape, or why Yangchow patrons came to prefer these effects, she does not explain.
Hsu's attitude toward the blurring of distinctions between amateur and professional artists that enlivened eighteenth-century painting in Yangchow is ambivalent.
He wrote out this poem in fifteen different transcriptions: in a reconstructed ancient pronunciation (quite pretty and no doubt infinitely less precise than Karlgren's), in Sino-Korean, Sino-Vietnamese, Cantonese, Hakka, two varieties of Amoy (colloquial and literary), Foochow, Wenchow, Ningpo, two varieties of Sino-Japanese (kan'on and go'on), Pekingese, Hankow, and Yangchow.
The Yangchow form [of] is ts'ae; the Foochow ch'a, ch'o; the Cantonese ts'o.
In the sense of 'creeper', 'to creep', the character is colloquial, and accordingly the Pekingese man' p'a-cho, the Hakka man, the Ningpo maan, the Yangchow maa, the Wenchow ma, the Foochow mang.