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see ChangChang
or Yangtze
, Mandarin Chang Jiang, longest river of China and of Asia, c.3,880 mi (6,245 km) long, rising in the Tibetan highlands, SW Qinghai prov., W China, and flowing generally E through central China into the East China Sea at Shanghai.
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(also Ch’ang Chiang or Blue River), the largest river in China and Eurasia. The Yangtze is 5,800 km long and drains an area of 1,808,500 sq km (according to some data, 5,980 km or 1,827,000 sq km).

The river rises from the glaciers of the Tanglha and Kukushihli ranges in the central part of the Tibetan Highlands. The upper course, called the Ulan Muren, flows in a broad, marshy valley.

As it descends from the Tibetan Highlands and crosses the Sino-Tibetan Mountains, the Yangtze, called Kinsha Kiang (Chinsha Chiang) here, flows through narrow, deep gorges, forming numerous rapids. After emerging from the Sino-Tibetan Mountains, the middle Yangtze flows along the southern edge of the Szechwan Basin, where it has a slow current and reaches a width of 300–500 m. While crossing the basin’s mountainous eastern edge, the river forms three gorges, with a total length of about 100 km, in which it narrows to 120–200 m, with depths sometimes reaching 100 m. This segment of the river is called Sanhsia. The lower course, called Ch’ang Chiang, the most widely used name in China, flows primarily across plains (Chianghan and the southern part of the North China Plain) in a well-worked valley, forming many branches and channels. The main channel is 1–2 km wide, with depths of 20–30 m. The river empties into the East China Sea primarily through two channels, forming a delta with an area of about 80,000 sq km.

There are many lakes in the valley of the Yangtze, and they play a significant part in regulating the flow of the lower course. The largest lakes are Tungt’ing Hu and P’oyang Hu. The principal tributaries, the Yalung, Min, Kialing, and Han (Izuiho), enter the Yangtze from the left.

The river is fed primarily by the summer monsoon rains; the upper course is also fed by melting mountain snows and glaciers. During the summer high stage, the rise in the river’s water level in the Szechwan Basin exceeds 20 m, while in the lower course it is 10–15 m. In the gorges, signs of floods have been observed 40 m above the lowest level, which occurs in the winter. The mean flow rate near the mouth is 34,000 cu m per sec (according to some data, about 22,000), and the annual runoff is estimated at 1,070 cu km, making the Yangtze the world’s fourth largest river. The lower Yangtze is influenced by ocean tides, which penetrate a distance of 750 km upstream, to the city of Chiuchiang. The Yangtze carries 280–300 million tons of sediment a year to its mouth, which contributes to the rapid growth of the delta (an average of 1 km every 35—40 years). Throughout most of its course, the river is brownish yellow, and consequently the name “Blue River,” given by Europeans, is inaccurate. On the plains of the lower Yangtze a significant amount of sediment is deposited in the channel, causing silt to accumulate, as a result of which the channel is higher than the adjacent land. To prevent the flooding of the adjacent plains, a series of dikes, measuring about 2,700 km in length and up to 10–12 m in height, have been built on the banks of the Yangtze and a number of its tributaries. In the lower Yangtze, the dikes and water distribution structures have reduced but not eliminated the threat of flooding; major floods occurred in 1870, 1896, 1931, 1949, and 1954. Most of the Yangtze does not freeze in the winter; ice forms only in the headwaters and in sections where the current is slow.

The waters of the Yangtze and its tributaries are used extensively for irrigation, primarily in the Szechwan Basin and in areas along the lower course. The river is navigable for a length of 2,850 km, to the foot of the Sino-Tibetan Mountains. Seagoing vessels with displacements of up to 10,000 tons can travel as far as Wuhan. The Grand Canal crosses the lower Yangtze. Fishing has developed extensively in the basins of Lakes Tungt’ing, P’oyang, and Tai (common carp, silver carp, grasscarp, black carp). The rivers of the Yangtze River basin have enormous hydroelectric power potential, estimated at 217 million kilowatts. A large hydroengineering complex is under construction (1981) in the gorges of Sanhsia. Major cities on the river are Ipin, Chungking, Wuhan, and Nanking; the seaport of Shanghai is near the mouth of the river.


Muranov, A. P. Reka Yantszy. Leningrad, 1959.



the longest river in China, rising in SE Qinghai province and flowing east to the East China Sea near Shanghai: a major commercial waterway in one of the most densely populated areas of the world. The Three Gorges dam near Yichang, the world's biggest hydroelectric and flood-control project, was begun in 1994 and the dam was completed in 2003, with filling expected to take several years thereafter. Length: 5528 km (3434 miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
The heavy impact of human activities in the Yangtze River, including overfishing of prey species, water development projects, water pollution and accidental deaths was considered as the primary threaten to this sub-species (Wang, 2009).
Mohammad Mueen Wattoo and Abdul Qadeer were part of the 10-member delegation, who visited the Yangtze River basin for taking stock of the measures taken by the Chinese government for the river flood-proof and how
It is an honour to witness this historic moment because, by conserving the finless porpoise, we are also helping to conserve the ecosystem of the Yangtze River," said Lu Sze Ping, from WWF China.
Based on the analysis of rock composition, texture, structure and fossil characteristics, we ranked the water depths of each deposition area of the Upper Yangtze region (see Table 1).
Researchers blame their startling discovery on rising pollution in the Yangtze River in addition to the numerous dams built along the 6,300 kilometer-long river (3,915 miles) by Chinese authorities.
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang in late April called for the creation of an "economic belt" along the Yangtze to promote better coordination in industrial development and more efficient allocation of resources among up to 11 provincial regions traversed by the river.
A Chinese tourism delegation is highlighting the beauty of the Yangtze River in order to attract tourists from nations that include Canada and the USA.
The Yangtze is called 'golden waterway' because of the heavy rainfall it receives year-round.
9 September 2011 - Hydropower producer China Yangtze Power (SHA:600900) has mandated China Construction Bank (HKG:0939; SHA:601939) and Agricultural Bank of China (HKG:1288;SHA:601288) to underwrite its CNY6.
BADONG, China: Last October, a huge chunk of hillside broke free in this city on the Yangtze River, and the deafening landslide nearly knocked Wang Songlian's home and a dozen others into a deep ravine.
Flooding on the southern reaches of the Yangtze river and in southwest China s Guangxi region in recent days has affected 13 provinces or regions and destroyed 465,000 hectares (1.
International Resource News-February 25, 2011--China Yangtze Power Co to sell CNY3.