These Christian concepts are pertinent to the life in the maniaba, the fale, the falaga and the yaqona
Yet this structuring of space is in sharp contrast to Fijian Methodism, where teaching and leadership emanate from the socially higher (i cake) part of the church, just as a chief sits at the socially highest place in a yaqona ceremony (Toren 1990).
As an Indo-Fijian Christian missionary family explained to me, the recent rise of evangelical traditions has been necessary both to see that Indo-Fijians reject their Hindu 'idol gods' and to eliminate witchcraft among indigenous Fijians, which the mainline churches have failed to achieve, particularly in yaqona drinking and in sevusevu, the ritual exchange of yaqona in greeting.
On the basis of this observation, it is tempting to conclude that yaqona use in Fiji has remained essentially stable over one hundred years.
Thus, in dwelling upon the purposeful modification of yaqona practices by sorcerers, healers and hoteliers, the observation ethnographically re-captures and re-affirms the creative agency that ethnic Fijians routinely exercise over their Fijianness.
Malakai Veisamasama--a journalist taken as hostage and quoted by Kelly and Kaplan (2001:144)--confirmed for me that a yaqona
ceremony had taken place before the release of the hostages, and that Chaudhry had accepted the cup offered to him, but that it was neither part of a matanigasau, nor an i soro, as Kelly and Kaplan have claimed, no tabua presentation having been made:</p> <pre>
the yaqona plant is infused in water and from which it is served--while
or of women and young men (11) and the prepared yaqona is served
In doing so, they openly demonise many traditional ideas and practices associated with ancestral worship--from yaqona
drinking to firewalking--and thus constitute a second wave of Christian demonisation of indigenous religion.
On interview, some twenty farmers admitted that, over and above the prospect of monetary gain, living separately meant avoiding the chiefs and their underhand vakapolitaka ('politicking') and, consequently, drinking yaqona
less with them.
Most people in the area are small subsistence farmers who also sell vegetables and yaqona
into the coastal urban markets from time to time as they need to raise money.
So in accordance with one's status one may sit above (i cake) or below (i ra) others when yaqona
(kava) is drunk; this above/below axis is constituted out of a transformation in ritual of another spatial construct -- veiqaravi lit.