North Yorkshire

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North Yorkshire,

county (2011 pop. 598,376), 3,209 sq mi (8,313 sq km), N England. The county comprises the districts of Craven, Hambleton, Harrogate, Richmondshire, Ryedale, Scarborough, and Selby. York, a former district, is now independent of the county. The county seat is Northallerton. North Yorkshire consists of two upland areas: the PenninesPennines
or Pennine Chain,
mountain range, sometimes called the "backbone of England," extending c.160 mi (260 km) from the Cheviot Hills on the Scottish border to the Peak District in Derbyshire.
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 and deep valleys engulf the western regions, while in the east are limestone and sandstone. The above terrain is separated by the Vale of York, a lower land consisting of clay soil. The economy is mainly agricultural. Sheep are raised on the upland hills. There is also some light industry, such as food processing and light engineering.

The area was occupied by the Roman military until the 7th cent. York flourished under the Anglians in the 8th cent. until invasions led to occupation by Scandanavians. William I the Conqueror destroyed many settlements there. During the Middle Ages the county was governed by wealthy landowners. It was later ravaged during the 15th cent. (see Roses, Wars of theRoses, Wars of the,
traditional name given to the intermittent struggle (1455–85) for the throne of England between the noble houses of York (whose badge was a white rose) and Lancaster (later associated with the red rose).

About the middle of the 15th cent.
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) and in the mid-17th-century English civil war. Many castle ruins remain. The Yorkshire Dales and the North York Moors national parks located within the county attract a growing number of tourists.

North Yorkshire

a county in N England, formed in 1974 from most of the North Riding of Yorkshire and parts of the East and West Ridings: the geographical and ceremonial county includes the unitary authorities of Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland, and part of Stockton on Tees (all within Cleveland until 1996), and York (created in 1997). Administrative centre: Northallerton. Pop. (excluding unitary authorities): 576 100 (2003 est.). Area (excluding unitary authorities): 8037 sq. km (3102 sq. miles)