year

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year,

timetime,
sequential arrangement of all events, or the interval between two events in such a sequence. The concept of time may be discussed on several different levels: physical, psychological, philosophical and scientific, and biological.
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 required for the earth to complete one orbit about the sun. The solar or tropical yeartropical year,
time between successive vernal equinoxes; 365 days, 5 hr, 48 min, 46 sec of mean solar time (see solar time). The tropical year is the basis of the year used in the Gregorian calendar.
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 is measured relative to the sun and is equal to 365 days, 5 hr, 48 min, 46 sec of mean solar time (see solar timesolar time,
time defined by the position of the sun. The solar day is the time it takes for the sun to return to the same meridian in the sky. Local solar time is measured by a sundial.
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). The sidereal yearsidereal year,
time required for the earth to complete an orbit of the sun relative to the stars. The sidereal year is 365 days, 6 hr, 9 min, 9.5 sec of mean solar time (see solar time).
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, measured relative to the stars, is longer than the tropical year by about 20 min. The calendarcalendar
[Lat., from Kalends], system of reckoning time for the practical purpose of recording past events and calculating dates for future plans. The calendar is based on noting ordinary and easily observable natural events, the cycle of the sun through the seasons with equinox
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 year is used for practical purposes and always contains a whole number of days, the ordinary year being 365 days and the leap year 366 days.

Year

 

an interval of time approximating the duration of one revolution of the earth around the sun.

Since ancient times the determination of the length of a year by observing recurring astronomic phenomena has been an important scientific problem having great practical significance. Ancient China and ancient Egypt both had quite accurate measurements of the year. The Greek scholar Hip-parchus in the second century B.C. calculated the length of a year as exactly 365.25 days minus 1/300 of a day, which varies from contemporary measurements by only 6½ minutes.

The complexity of the movement of the earth around the sun accounts for the various values of the year that are used in different fields of science and everyday life. The stellar (sidereal) year is the interval of time in which the sun completes its apparent annual path in the heavens with respect to the stars. The tropical year is the interval of time between two successive transits of the sun through the point of the vernal equinox. It corresponds to the period in which the earth experiences the change of seasons—spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The anomalistic year, the interval between two successive transits of the sun through the perihelion, is used in celestial mechanics. The Draconic year is the interval in which the sun returns to the same (ascending or descending) nodal point on the lunar orbit. It is used for predicting solar and lunar eclipses. The Julian year is the basis for the Julian calendar (old style); now it is sometimes used in astronomy for computing large intervals of time (the Julian century is 36,525 days). The Gregorian year serves as the basic unit in the Gregorian calendar (new style). The lunar year equal to 12 (or 13) synodical months, is used in lunar calendars. Table 1 shows the duration of a year in each system.

Table 1. Systems of years
 Duration in ephemeris days (for 1950)100 years’ deviation (in days)
Sidereal year...............365.256360+0.11 x 10−4
Tropical year...............365.242196-6.16 x 10−4
Anomalistic year...............365.259641+3.04 x 10−4
Draconic year...............346.620047+32 x 10−4
Lunar year(in 12 months)...............354.3670-2.4 x 10−4
Julian year...............365.25
Gregorian year(average duration)...............365.2425

N. P. ERPYLEV

year

[yir]
(astronomy)
Any of several units of time based on the revolution of the earth about the sun; the tropical year to which the calendar is adjusted is the period required for the sun's longitude to increase 360°; it is about 365.24220 mean solar days. Abbreviated yr.

year

1. the period of time, the calendar year, containing 365 days or in a leap year 366 days. It is based on the Gregorian calendar, being divided into 12 calendar months, and is reckoned from January 1 to December 31
2. the period of time, the solar year, during which the earth makes one revolution around the sun, measured between two successive vernal equinoxes: equal to 365.242 19 days
3. the period of time, the sidereal year, during which the earth makes one revolution around the sun, measured between two successive conjunctions of a particular distant star: equal to 365.256 36 days
4. the period of time, the lunar year, containing 12 lunar months and equal to 354.3671 days
5. the period of time taken by a specified planet to complete one revolution around the sun
6. a group of pupils or students, who are taught or study together, divided into classes at school
7. year and a day English law a period fixed by law to ensure the completion of a full year. It is applied for certain purposes, such as to determine the time within which wrecks must be claimed
References in classic literature ?
After addressing, in the midsummer of the following year, an appeal to the commiseration of the National Assembly of France, which the English minister refused to sanction, he composed himself to undergo his full term of punishment; and suffering his beard to grow nearly to his waist, and conforming in all respects to the ceremonies of his new religion, he applied himself to the study of history, and occasionally to the art of painting, in which, in his younger days, he had shown some skill.
Whether he had forgotten the art of Polite Conversation in Newgate, or had made a vow in those troubled times to forego, for a period, the display of his accomplishments, is matter of uncertainty; but certain it is that for a whole year he never indulged in any other sound than a grave, decorous croak.
"But, Baisemeaux, I can hardly believe what you tell me; besides, since the Bastile is capable of producing fifty thousand francs a year, why have you not tried to screw one hundred thousand out of it?"
They spent the old year's last hour quietly around the fire.
"Welcome, New Year," said Captain Jim, bowing low as the last stroke died away.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislature.
The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.
Thus there appeared upon the scene the so- called "Reis telephone," which was not a telephone at all, in any practical sense, but which served well enough for nine years or more as a weapon to use against the Bell patents.
These verses from "Annabel Lee," written by Poe in 1849, the last year of his life, tell of his sorrow at the loss of his child-wife:
Years ago your mother was uneasy, on her death-bed, about your future.
Miss Vanhomrigh, like 'Stella,' was infatuated with Swift, and like her followed him to Ireland, and for nine years, as has been said, he
"Fourthly and finally," the father said, looking ironically at his son, "I beg you to put it off for a year: go abroad, take a cure, look out as you wanted to for a German tutor for Prince Nicholas.