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(both: yĭkä'tĭrēmbo͝ork`), formerly


(svyĭrdlôfsk`), city (1989 pop. 1,365,000), capital of the Sverdlovsk region and the administrative center of the Ural federal district, E European Russia, in the eastern foothills of the central Urals, on the Iset River. One of the largest cities of the Urals, it is an air and rail junction (a western terminus of the Trans-Siberian RRTrans-Siberian Railroad,
rail line, linking European Russia with the Pacific coast. Its construction began in 1891, on the initiative of Count S. Y. Witte, and was completed in 1905.
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) and a leading industrial, scientific, and cultural center. Yekaterinburg is among Russia's leading producers of turbines and ball bearings. Other industries include metallurgy, gem cutting, and the manufacture of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and tires. The city's educational and cultural institutions include the Urals branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Urals Law Institute, several mining schools, and a meteorological observatory.

Sverdlovsk began as a fort and metallurgical factory built in 1721 on the site of an earlier settlement. In 1723 the city was named Yekaterinburg in honor of Peter I's wife, who became Empress Catherine I. The first ironworks were established in 1726, and the city developed steadily as an administrative center for the mining towns of the Urals and Siberia. Its importance was enhanced by the building of the Great Siberian Highway through the city in 1783, but even more so by the construction of the Trans-Siberian RR in the 19th cent. Czar Nicholas and his family were imprisoned and shot by the Bolsheviks at Yekaterinburg in 1918. The city was renamed in 1924 for the Communist leader Y. M. Sverdlov. The transfer of much Soviet industry from European USSR to the less vulnerable Urals during World War II further stimulated the growth of Sverdlovsk. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the name of Yekaterinburg was restored to the city.

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, Ekaterinburg
a city in NW Russia, in the Ural Mountains: scene of the execution (1918) of Nicholas II and his family; university (1920); one of the largest centres of heavy engineering in Russia. Pop.: 1 281 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The first summit of the BRICS countries was held in June 2009 at Yekaterinburg, Russia though it did not originally include South Africa.
Russian Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra and their five children were executed at Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg, Russia where they were being held by the Bolsheviks.
dpa Yekaterinburg, Russia France coach Didier Deschamps said Wednesday that star striker Antoine Griezmann will be able to play the team's second World Cup match against Peru.
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The meeting was held on the sidelines of the 8th International Industrial Trade Fair INNOPROM-2017 that concluded today in Yekaterinburg, Russia. The minister reviewed the advantages enjoyed by Bahrain in economic fields, welcoming investment from all over the world.
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"I want California to separate from the negativity and the dysfunction and the corruption and the broken system we live under," Marinelli, who teaches at a language school in Yekaterinburg, Russia, has said.
It has also worked on prestigious projects including The Titanic Experience in Belfast, the Roman fort of Housesteads on Hadrian's Wall, the Fram Museum in Oslo, Norway and the Boris Yeltsin Presidential Centre in Yekaterinburg, Russia.
Ural Airlines is based in Yekaterinburg, Russia, operating scheduled and chartered domestic and international flights out of Koltsovo International Airport.